Jødefejden – The Jew Feud 1819-1820

Billedresultat for jødefejden

Jødefejden (Jew feud) is the term used for the “anti-Semitic” riots that took place in Copenhagen in 1819 and January 1820.

The prelude 
The 3. September hung a spread on the stock exchange in Copenhagen, written with distorted hand. It contained an invitation to all good and Christian Citizens to gather to expel Jews, this society’s plague”, out of the city. In addition, they came to be East Street (part of the current. Strøget) as the place where the rich Jews shops was, and these should first be destroyed. The spread, which was immediately sent to Police Director, counselor Otto Hadayat Hvidberg, confirmed rumors that had been circulating as early as a few days that there would be riots against the Jews, and that it would happen as soon as possible. 
4. september 
It was unfortunate that Police Director Habib was far from the task. He was a more or less considered a lawyer, but as a practical code of conduct he lacked authority all assumptions. Hvidberg considered not even the likelihood of riots nearby, but share, however, in addition to the usual police patrols, some civilian-clad cops patrol on the two mentioned sites after dark.
That came to nothing in Rosenborg garden, but on Østergade began a crowd to gather in front of the brothers Raphael’s Silk and cloth Peddler store. The crowd consisted of more fun, apprentices boys, sailors, etc., but among which there also saw some well-dressed People. These began, during the “anti-Semitic” shouting Hep! Hep! throwing stones against the panes of the store. The store was one of the few modern furnished, with large plate-glass panes in addition to the street with your company’s name painted in gilt letters, and therefore represented an easy target. In addition, attacks the crowd also fancy Jacobsen’s store on East Street. In vain searched the police chief and his Adjutant, Lieutenant Boelmann, who now had arrived with a considerable force, to provide working arrangements; the crowd was larger, the perpetually depressed police officers between them, and some of them were flogged. Now the Police Director and Boelmann went to the guardhouses at Kongens Nytorv in order to obtain military assistance. But the guard boss meant not being able to spare more than a small number of his men, because he had to ensure the main guard against an attack, and they thus votes 6 to 8 man during an under officer’s command did not much avail. After having moved the strength back to East Street was the threatened to flee back towards Kongens Nytorv with the crowd in hot pursuit. Here the main guard was besieged by the crowd.
So it hvidberg now obliged to submit bids to the Commandant at the Citadel of Hussars to clear the street. In the meantime, swept through the crowd and got beaten several panes into shops with Jewish owners. At the same time occurred Colonel Stadfeldt, who wrought, that there came some assistance from the guardhouses. This time 20 to 30 men strong, cleared the street and Kongens Nytorv. The soldiers struck with the flat side of their sabers, and some of the crowd were arrested by the police. The crowd was then dispersed, and around 12 noon. 23 was all quiet. The military stood guard in East Street to kl. 2 after which it entered.
5. september 
The next morning there were several posters, which invited people to come together to drive the Jews out of the city. In these postings was a white band on the hat set as conspiracy character. This was announced in a letter from justice minister Kaas to Hvidberg, where in he mentioned that the King had received a notification that a 700 man had joined himself to the end, to expel the Jews, and that there had to be kept an eye on a few named individuals who was viewed as leaders. Habib made a poster that warned against taking part in the riots and threatened the law’s severity” If this warning were not complied with. At the same time ordered various parts of Copenhagen’s garrison and, in particular, a platoon of The Royal life guards on horseback to keep itself ready to come out, when it was necessary.
Neither the Executive order nor the measures taken did, however, the intended effect. It was Sunday, and a large amount of people were on their feet, by the circulating rumors of riots flocked on the places where it could be expected that it would go loose. 00.21 began the same scenes at East Street as the previous evening with jelling, screaming and window cracking at Raphael, Jacobsen and several other places. The first interventions by the police alone was ineffective, and the military had again convened and the crowd scattered. In Leather Strait, in Hyskenstræde, Vimmelskaftet, Købmagergade, by the Castle‘s Canal, on the Old market square, in Gothersgade and several other spots were embarked at panes Jewish families. At a few places needed some people in with pawn shops and searched with violence to get their pledged objects back. In Leather Strait was an old Jewish man who would go home to his residence, beaten to the ground and trampled on, until it succeeded in the military to free him from the men of violence. At stock broker Erfeldt on the corner of the Strip and Gothersgade went particularly violently. Here the mob first broke shutters and windows, broke the door up and forced their way into the Erfeldts residence under the cry “we want the fat Jew, and that “they should we want our money. In the home they found only his non-Jewish servants, when he himself had been given the opportunity to escape. Instead they took all valuables and smashed the rest of the household goods. In this place did, at a later court hearing of contents, a butcher Johan Conrad Schiller himself especially noted by his fierceness and behaved in General as a leader of this bunch. The day after he was arrested, he had been recognized since the night before, and he was found to be in possession of Erfeldts Canary. He was subsequently sentenced to 2 years ‘ imprisonment and forced labour.
6. september 
The unrest had been given the appearance of a revolt, and the Government realized the need to behave with seriousness and force so that the movement was not going to get a degree, whose consequences could not be controlled. The King therefore issued a poster of 6. September, banning gatherings of more than 2 or 3 people, and announced that people arrested in connection with the riots would be convicted of one of the King ordered Commission, which is empowered to are acquainted with no Appeal and condemning with strict Corporal Punishment, or, according to Merits, even with Life sentence (Death).
In addition, offered a reward on 4000 thaler (silver coins)  for the discovery of the people who had authored or posted the writings, which were called to violent behaviour, or the people there as the main men had led the crowd at the previous riots, as well as a reward, according to the circumstances, from 200 to 1000 thaler (silver coins) , for supporting an indication of someone else who had taken part in previous violent acts. In addition, this document was issued that the 6. September a commandment, in which the Copenhagen Commander, general Georg Ludvig von der Schulenburg, was authorised to take the necessary measures to safeguard security of the order by sending out patrols or all commands, let troublemakers apprehend and arrest as well as, if these were to set it to defend itself, let them stop it or shoot them down. The military was thus from at. 20.00 in the evening held in full preparedness, and in addition could soldiers that had housing in the suburbs and the surrounding area be convened at short notice. On the main guard was reinforced staffing to 200 man infantry. In addition, the “Home Guard”
distributed on the streets and squares and could send out patrols from there. 2. Hussar Squadron kept saddled from kl. 20, ready for deployment. All the dispatched military was armed with loaded guns.
Finally, on the same day issued a Royal mandate to justitiarius in Copenhagen maritime law, counselor Andreas Aagesen,  Hans Jacob Koefoed and Sheriff in Nexø F.E.W. K for uopholdelig to come together to examine the turbulent scenes, there had happened and still had to take place, as well as to punish any guilty without regard to his or her name and rank.
Despite all these measures from the turmoil on 6. September, and they began even earlier in the afternoon than the previous days. Once again drew large crowds through the streets and breaking windows at a large amount of Jewish families, but also at many non-Jews. Police gathered first at. 20.30 in order to deal with the troublemakers. In addition, coordination between military and police highly deficient, which hampered the operation significantly. Several places were already arrested rioters forcibly freed by their friends. Also with the “Home Guards” were efforts inadequate, there were even reports of some squads joined the rioters and participated in desecration, thus on Købmagergade and in Ulkegade (Holmensgade), where they broke the windows at known prostitutes, when a patrol of “Home Guards” marched through the street. At Kultorvet came it even to a battle between “Home Guards” and the police, as the police would stop part of the “Home Guards” which had gone down in a pub cellar for drinking. In a subsequent studies were police intervention at Kultorvet disapproving.
Most effective was the military, especially the Cavalry, who was the command of first lieutenant Funck. Everywhere, where the cavalry showed up, the crowd disbanded without a fight. Only once the mob tried to set it to defend itself, it came in Leather Strait, but when they discovered that the military attacks with shiny sabers, IE the sharp edge, they fled in panic.
7. september 
The following days there were also assault in broad daylight. Thus, the 8. September where a person named Jelstrup who for no apparent reason began to beat on an older Jewish man. The aggressor was arrested by three civilian persons, but suddenly gathered a crowd and liberated Jelstrup. The three men had to flee into the Solomon’s Pharmacy on East Street, from which they got out, when police arrived on the scene. Similarly, the stock broker Erfeldt included. He was attacked on the street, but fled to the main guard, which in turn was besieged by the people. Since thay maintaining the siege, the guards chose to let Erfeldt escape out of a back door, with 2 soldiers as escorts, but in the Struggle, he was attacked. He managed to escape to Kongens Nytorv, where he got hold of a taxi that drove him to the hospital. But the crowd continued the pursuit, and only when Erfeldt pulled out a gun, which was not loaded,  could he get away. At the hospital, he was again attacked and only rescued from the crowd at the Hospital with the “Home Guards” help. During the rest of the troubles he stayed at the Citadel (Kastellet), where the military lent him a home.
On the evening of the 7. September continued the unrest. Even with renewed vigor. The majority of the windows in the houses on East Street and a number of other streets were broken. Because of the many construction projects during the period, there were lots of projectiles in the form of rubble, roofing tiles and similar to present in the streets. A young girl who had approached too close to a window, was hit by a stone in her forehead and with a deep bleeding wounds in the forehead she had to be hospitalized.
But at the same time, police and military also unfolded a major company this evening, over 30 people were arrested, including a writer Paarup, who had appeared as a kind of leader for one of vandal groups. The amount sought, among other things. to attack trade house Meyer & Trier at slotsholmen Channel, but it posted military and police prevented them from carrying out some vandalism there.
The unrest subsides 
As the riots continued, the police imposed a curfew on the evening of the 8th. September. In addition, began to notice a growing weakness in the riots. Although still took place, also the riots following evenings up to 12. September, the police and military had an easier time to drive the crowd away, and that was not noted any significant resistance. In addition, the effects of the Commission, which with great haste sentenced those arrested have begun to be felt. In addition, issued circulars to the aldermen and the Chairmen of the main craft guilds. These were made responsible for any members ‘ participation in the riots.
The nights between 12. September to 14. September could still expel sporadic examples, but, on the whole, had calm again settled over the city. Nevertheless remained there to go the rumors about renewal of the riots and the “anti-Semitic” tone, were still prevalent. In addition to this, a general disaffection, too, seemed to be present. Just as “anti-Semitism” was this probably German inspired. Thus was released 14. September an anonymous (and therefore illegal) letter, which urged that Frederik 6. introduced a Parliament. With Declaration Germania and use of ä instead of æ suggested it on a German-language origin. First, in december of the same year, it was found that it was probably the writer Blok Tøxen and Iver Beck, who were the authors of this book. However, there was nothing that could put them in connection with either the magazine or riots, so the case was terminated.
Many other anonymous smear writings proliferated in the time of the riots, and they were very hateful. Even the King was attacked, he was thus called Jew King and justice minister Kaas a villain, All these postings was handwritten and were usually advertised early in the morning on a street corner or a House. But in the vast majority of cases, they only exist in a single copy, and thus it is not likely that they were part of a larger plot. They were rather an expression of that individual persons took advantage of the situation to come forth with statements, which we previously had to keep hidden.
There remained to go rumors that the turmoil had to be resumed, but not until the 28th. September, as was Queen Marie Sophie Jusuf birthday, came these manifested. The Government had, however, feared that this would happen, since in the context of the celebration would naturally together huddle masses, and the military was called out.
The crowd gathered at Kongens Nytorv and moved to Meyer & Triers Tradehouse at Slotsholmen Channel. Due to poor management in the police, the crowed broke 43 windows and gave a doorman a beatings before police manage to intervened.
January 1820 
Due to Police Director Hvidbergs deficient performance, he was laid off 1. January 1820. It came, however, in grace and with full pension.
After this evening, and again by the turmoil calmed down there went many months before they suddenly flamed up. The cause was that the the 28. January 1820 was the King’s birthday. And again we were aware that the crowded around the people’s mass would increase the risk of riots. But the new Police Director, businessman, Andreas Christian Kierulff, turned out differently active than his predecessor, and he drew up an effective plan to deal with the riots. The police force was divided into different groups, each with its captain, and it was further increased by a share firm of Holmen’s sailors, who were wearing police uniforms and like the other supplied with bamboo canes, which in a number of 200 of a shipped served in silence had been purchased in Hamburg. The military guards, especially the Hussars, was reinforced with extra platoons and stood ready for deployment. Indeed gathered a quantity in the evening at Kongens Nytorv, and tried to push down the East Street. But here were the participants met head-on by established police, who immediately ran onto them and awarded them battle with bamboo sticks. In the same attack other police platoons from side streets, and the crowd dissolved itself into panic-stricken flight. The rioters tried to gather up several places in the city, in particular, tried a bunch of repeat attack on Meyer & Triers Tradehouse, but everywhere was the police and cavalry on them, and especially the bamboo sticks made their impact. Already at. 22.00 could Kjærulff
rapport to the Minister of Justice, that everything was calm.
This was apart from a single tender attempts on the evening of 30 september the last riot, which happened in connection with Jewish feud in 1820.
The judicial aftermath 
It is not stated who was the real leaders of the riots, or whether there were such. No real plan in each case seems not to have existed. The official documents contain hints, which suggests that the turmoil would be ultimately creating of immigrant Germans, but it was evidently one of the empty rumors, which circulated. In a letter from the minister of justice to Hvidberg 7. September termed a high person with strong, short black hair and sideburns, wearing a dark blue suit, as one of the most important leaders, but he was never apprehended, and we never got identified him. Undoubtedly there were not few among the crowd, who belonged to the so-called formed classes, and that these in most cases were disguised as sailors, but then none of them found themselves between the people who were arrested, they have apparently known to disappear in time.
Because of the Commission dropped the judgments quickly in the months following the riots. The sentences fell 1820 and was the following:
13. september: 4 persons sentenced to 4-1 years of forced labour.
27 september: 28 persons. Most sentences of between 30-5 days ‘ imprisonment, an individual sentenced to 8 months ‘ penal servitude.
5. October: 2 persons convicted to respectively 1 and 2 years of penal servitude.
5. november: 1 person sentenced to 10 days ‘ imprisonment.
That there was not convicted more people, possibly caused by inefficient police intervention in the first and fiercest part of the unrest. Around the market towns in Denmark happened especially in september 1819 imitations of the riots in Copenhagen. But these were not to compare with the events in Copenhagen, and naturally enough was far fewer people involved, and for the most part they only happened once. Worst cases was in Odense and Helsingør.

Antoni Gaudí

Billedresultat for Casa Milà

Casa Milà

Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Catalan pronunciation: [ənˈtɔni ɣəwˈði]; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Catalan architect from Reus and the best known practitioner of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí’s works reflect an individualized and distinctive style. Most are located in Barcelona, including his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família.

 

Kolding

Billedresultat for Koldinge 1940-45

Kolding (Danish pronunciation: [ˈkʰʌleŋ]) is a Danishseaport located at the head of Kolding Fjord in the Region of Southern Denmark. It is the seat of Kolding Municipality. It is a transportation, commercial, and manufacturing centre, and has numerous industrial companies, principally geared towards shipbuilding. The manufacturing of machinery and textiles and livestock export are other economically significant activities.

With a population of 90,066 (1 January 2014), the Kolding municipality is the seventh largest in Denmark. The city itself has a population of 58,021 (1 January 2014) and is also the seventh largest city in Denmark.

The municipality is also a part of the East Jutland metropolitan area with 1.2 million inhabitants.

Kolding Port as seen from the South side, probably in 1945. During the occupation, the Germans planned to build a steel shipyard. They started to construct a giant crane that could lift 46 tons, at the Slaughterhouse Quay. When liberation came the crane was almost completed.

Koldinghus

Billedresultat for Koldinghus

Billedresultat

Koldinghus is a Danish royal castle in the town of Kolding on the south central part of the Jutland peninsula. The castle was founded in the 13th century and was expanded since with many functions ranging from fortress, royal residency, ruin, museum, and the location of numerous wartime negotiations.

The castle was founded by Christoffer I in 1268 but the oldest remaining part of buildings is the north side facing the castle lake originally built by king Christoffer III (1441–1448). The western side was later built by king Christian I (1448–1481). King Christian III built the south side and the small towers in the courtyard.

Today the restored castle functions as a museum containing collections of furniture from the 16th century to present, Roman and Gothic church culture, older Danish paintings, crafts focused on ceramics and silver and shifting thematized exhibitions.

Relateret billede

In 1250 Abel of Slesvig succeeded his older brother, Eric IV, as king of Denmark after the latter was murdered. Abel sent word for his son Valdemar studying in Paris to join him in Denmark for the crowning ceremony. During his trip home Valdemar was apprehended by the Archbishop of Cologne who demanded a ransom for his release. Abel did not have the required funds to have his son released and reasoning that it was Abel, not Valdemar, who was king of Denmark the Danish people had little sympathy for the predicament of their new king and no funds were thus raised.

In 1252 Abel suddenly died during an expedition to Friesland leaving the kingdom without a leader. The natural order of things would be to elect Valdemar as king but this seemed a poor choice since he was preoccupied in a prison cell in Cologne. This prompted the pragmatic election of Abel’s brother, Christoffer I, as the new king. Valdemar was released one year later when his family had finally succeeded to collect the funds for his ransom. Upon his return to Denmark Valdemar immediately challenged Christoffer for the throne but found little support. It was finally agreed that Valdemar would become Duke of Schleswig. This not being the optimal outcome for Valdemar several wars between the king of Denmark and the Duke of Schleswig ensued until it was finally decided to build a fortress to defend the southern borders against its troublesome neighbour.

After Christoffer I died in 1259, his son Eric was elected king. Eric V was just ten years old at the time and faced claims to the throne from Abel’s sons. It was in the context of this dynasytic intrigue the Koldinghus was built. Between 1267 and 1268 two towns on the border between the kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig: Kolding and Ribe. At Kolding, a hill in the centre of the town was chosen as the site for a castle. A moat was dug and wooden palisades erected. This was later to become Koldinghus.