The Jew Feud 1813 or the literary Jew feud is the term for the conflict that took place in 1813-1814 between “anti-Semites” and their opponents. This dispute was, unlike the Jew feud 1819-1820 first and foremost out on paper.
The “Danish” Jews had during the 1790s and 1810s got better opportunities to participate in Danish society. Especially by a great improvement of their educational opportunities and also the ability to feed themselves as craftsmen, in addition to the traditional commercial subjects. Combined with the Danish State bankruptcy of 1813 and the general sense of defeat as a result of Denmark’s failed policy in the Napoleonic wars, grew a significant wave of “anti-Semitism” emerged in certain groups of the population.
“Anti-Semitic” pamphlets, especially translated pamphlets from Germany, which saw a wave of “anti-Semitism” during the same period, was very popular. The Danish poet Thomas Thaarup translated one of the most popular German writings, preusseren Friedrich Buchholz ‘ Moses and Jesus (1803). This script, as under the skin of wanting to convert Jews to Christianity, obtained with a quantity of accusations against them, often with quotes from Jewish religious works taken out of any context. Although the treatise itself was bad enough, wrote Thomas Thaarup a told on 62 pages with even worse “insults and lies” against the Jews. He claimed that the Jews because of their non-Christian religion was exempt from the fulfilment of the moral and civic duties against their Danish compatriots.
Merchant Gottleb Euchel wrote a counter script to the eternal peace (1813) which demonstrated that Thomas Thaarup reiterated arguments from older “anti semitic” writings, which had already been refuted. He also called on the Thomas Thaarup to indicate only a single place in the code, which allows Jews to exercise violence against Christians or to commit perjury against them.
A lawyer and businessman Johan Hendrich Bærens also spoke against Thomas Thaarup in an article in the Nyeste Skilderie af Kjøbenhavn and with an independent addition to Moses and Jesus (1813), in which he demonstrates that the Copenhagen Jews have fulfilled their moral and civic duties as well as every Christian, and that they even, compared with the odd circumstances they have lived under , has a an impressive improvement of general education in the course of the preceding ten years. In addition, he lists a large number of prominent figures of Jewish ancestry in the Danish society.
Thomas Thaarup responded in the journal managed to Reply. In it he began to emphasize that it is absolutely not his opinion to put the Jews to hatred, to then repeat the accusations from his first script.
Several other publishing writings in defense of the Jews, including the treatise of the Jews with Jens Baggesen and Johan Werfel, who created the journal was the northern lights exclusively written for the purpose of rebutting Thomas Thaarup. Also Jens Kragh Høst came up against Thaarup accusations. He published a Danish translation of the original German script against Buchholz written by August Ferdinand Lueder called On Jews ‘ Processing by the Government (1813). Jens Kragh Høst also wrote an appendix to the book, which reviewed the previous 25 years economy in Denmark and refuted often argued the claim that it was the Jews who were to blame for Denmark’s bad economy. Businessman Mendel Levin Nathanson wrote anonymously.
The poet, Steen Steensen Blicher wrote – Should the Jews be tolerated in the State? (1813), which was an unconditional ‘ yes ‘ to the title question.
The rise of anti-Semitism
But despite the massive resistance against Thomas Thaarup was the feud is far from over. A wave of pamphlets, articles, and pamphlets against the Jews was the consequence of his appearance. Among their authors were only relatively prominent figures
Vice Dean Otto Horrebow as in 1813 started the magazine Jewish Chronicle, through 13 numbers spoke of, that the Jews should forced Christians as they would otherwise “desorganisere“ State and
Thomas Christopher Bruun, who published a pamphlet on the Jews, but Not their Gienlöser, Councilor, which was directed against Jens Baggesen’s posts in the case and was filled with personal insults. Furthermore, followed Thomas Christopher Bruun up with a number of pamphlets the following year.
The rest of the countless “anti-Semitic” writings shows by their language and arguments that the first and foremost was written by a bare necessities only educated social class; It was therefore mainly among poorer workers, “anti-Semitism” became apparent.
The literary feud continued a few more years and was even reinforced, as Thomas Thaarup in 1816 published a translation of the German “anti-Semitic” play Unser Verkehr (our Handling). The piece was performed at a Copenhagen private theatre during the tumultuous applause.
The general atmosphere in which this “anti-Semitic” wave evoked, resulted not rarely violent. Many Jews dare not show themselves during this period public on streets for fear of being reviled or forever reviled by along crowded around people. There are examples where Jews were assaulted and beaten. One such incident took place in the Frederiksberg garden where an old man was so bruised by a few “shirt-clad people“ (meaning people of the working class) that he was brought to the hospital in critical condition.
The Jews ‘ position in the State
As a result of this feud, it was on part of the Government necessary to establish the position of Jews in the State. The King Frederik 6. (the Jew King) could not in any way endorse the “anti-Semitic” attacks, and 29. March 1814 he published a regulation which contained detailed provisions on the Jews ‘ civic position in the State and ordered their local conditions and the Board of Directors. Much of the content was previously drawn up by the board of jewish regulators of Copenhagen, it cannot be ruled out that the feud has been a contributing factor to most of it was included in the regulation. So got the Jews allowed to feed themselves in most professions, in addition to the Jewish Mosaic Belief Agency was authorized and determined by Royal commandments.
From the official team was a major step taken to the Jews ‘ full entry into the Danish society. But the “anti-Semitic” currents was still widespread especially in Copenhagen. This culminated in the riots, which is called Jew feud 1819-1820.