Bodelswenge was first mentioned in writing at 1220. It was perhaps at the core of the present town, which was also called Budenswenge in the 13th century.
The House of Bodelschwingh is found for the first time in a document dated 14 February 1302.
Bodelschwingh, which was one of a total of twelve water castles in today’s Dortmund region. However, Bodelschwingh was not yet part of the imperial city in the Middle Ages, but was located on the territory of the county of Mark. In the protection of the former castle, an early settlement developed with its own church, the castle freedom of Bodelschwingh, which maintained its independence until 1928.