The Chinese House (German: Chinesisches Haus) is a garden pavilion in Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, Germany. Frederick the Great had it built, about seven hundred metres southwest of the Sanssouci Summer Palace, to adorn his flower and vegetable garden. The garden architect was Johann Gottfried Büring, who between 1755 and 1764 designed the pavilion in the then-popular style of Chinoiserie, a mixture of ornamental rococo elements and parts of Chinese architecture.
The unusually long building time of nine years is attributed to the Seven Years’ War, during which Prussia’s economic and financial situation suffered significantly. Only after the end of the war in 1763 were the chambers inside the pavilion furnished. As the building served not only as a decorative piece of garden architecture but also as a setting for small social events, Frederick the Great ordered the building of a Chinese Kitchen, a few metres south-east of the Chinese House. After a conversion in 1789, only the hexagonal windows show the Oriental character of the former outbuilding. A few years later, the Dragon House was built in the form of a Chinese pagoda on the northern edge of Sanssouci Park bordering Klausberg. The building was Frederick the Great’s attempt to follow the Chinese fashion of the 18th century, which began in France before spreading to England, Germany, and Russia.
The Temple of Friendship (German: Freundschaftstempel) is a small, round temple in the western part of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam. It was built by the Prussian king Frederick II in memory of his favorite sister, Markgravine Wilhelmine of Bayreuth, who died in 1758. The temple was built south of the park’s main boulevard between 1768 and 1770 by architect Carl von Gontard, complementing the Temple of Antiquities, which lies due north of the boulevard on an axis with the Temple of Friendship.
The Antique Temple is a small round temple in the west part of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam. Frederick the Great had the building constructed to house his collection of antique artifacts, coins and antique gems. Carl von Gontard created the building in 1768/69 near the New Palace north of the Central Alley, as a complement to the Temple of Friendship situated south of the Alley. Since 1921 the Antique Temple has been used as a mausoleum for members of the House of Hohenzollern and is not open to the public.
The Obelisk entrance (German Obeliskportal) constitutes the eastern limit of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, Germany. Following plans by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, Frederick the Great ordered in 1747 that this exit from the park be built.
The New Palace, built at a later date, stands in the line of sight of the entrance; the two are connected by the roughly 2 km long main alley.
The Roman Baths (German: die Römischen Bäder), situated northeast of the Charlottenhof Palace in the Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, reflect the Italiensehnsucht (“Sehnsucht/longing for Italy“) of its creator Frederick William IV of Prussia. Various classical Roman and antique Italian styles were melded into an architectural ensemble, created between 1829 and 1840.
The whole nostalgic creation is on the bank of an artificial lake created during Peter Joseph Lenné‘s landscaping of the Charlottenhof grounds. The so-called machine pond (Maschinenteich) gets its name from a steam engine building and an adjacent pumping station torn down in 1923. The large hull of a well marks the location of the former building. The steam engine was not just responsible for keeping the artificial waters of Charlottenhof moving – its smokestacks were also a symbol of progress and what was at its time advanced technology.
The Protestant Church of Peace (German: Friedenskirche) is situated in the Marly Gardens on the Green Fence (Am Grünen Gitter) in the palace grounds of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, Germany. The church was built according to the wishes and with the close involvement of the artistically gifted King Frederick William IV and designed by the court architect, Ludwig Persius. After Persius’ death in 1845, the architect Friedrich August Stüler was charged with continuing his work. Building included work by Ferdinand von Arnim and Ludwig Ferdinand Hesse also. The church is located in the area covered by the UNESCO World Heritage Site Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin.
The cornerstone of the churchhouse was laid on April 14, 1845. The building was dedicated on September 24, 1848, though construction continued until 1854. The structure resembles a High Medieval Italian monastery.
As of 2015, various parts of the church were in need of repair. The Campanile has already required emergency stabilisation work. The Venetian mosaic is also at risk. The iron parts of the construction underlying the mosaic (imported in its original mortar setting) are rusting. In addition, the roofs of the side aisles are leaking, allowing water to seep into the walls.
Dragon House (German Drachenhaus) is a historical building in Potsdam, Germany, built by King Frederick the Great of Prussia on the southern slope of the Klausberg, which borders the northern edge of Sanssouci Park. It was constructed between 1770 and 1772 in the prevailing Chinoiserie taste of the time, designed to imitate a Chinese pagoda. Carl von Gontard was commissioned to build it.
The Dragon House at Sanssouci was built on an octagonal plan, with four floors not only to be decorative, but also as living quarters for the wine-growers who worked on the neighbouring Weinberg. However, they did not move into the pagoda. To save the pagoda from its dilapidated state, it had to be restored in 1787. Ever since then it has been constantly inhabited by the overseer of the Belvedere on the Klausberg. Over the years, because of its inhabitation, an additional room, a laundry and three stables have extended the two rooms—a kitchen and an entrance hall—of the structure. The Dragon House has been used since 1934 in a gastronomical capacity.
Charlottenhof Palace or Charlottenhof Manor (German: Schloss Charlottenhof) is a former royal palace located southwest of Sanssouci Palace in Sanssouci Park at Potsdam, Germany. It is best known as the summer residence of Crown Prince Frederick William (later King Frederick William IV of Prussia). Today it is maintained by the Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg.
Officially the palace and park were named “Charlottenhof” in honor of Maria Charlotte von Gentzkow who had owned the property from 1790 to 1794.
The Wildpark station was built in 1868 on the new line linking Berlin to Magdeburg. At the beginning of the 20th century, after the opening of the bypass lines to Nauen (1902) and Jüterbog (1904), it was built a small rail hub. In 1909 the Kaiserbahnof (see the section below) was inaugurated for the private usage of the Kaiser Wilhelm II. From 1950, after the division of Germany, the station functioned in the Berlin outer ring (Berliner Außenring), and for some years was served by an holyday express train from Saxony to the Baltic Sea. After the completion of the Golm-Potsdam Pirschheide bypass of the Außerring, the station remained part of a short line (however linked to Magdeburg and to the ring) to Potsdam Hauptbahnhof (in that period Potsdam Stadt) and Potsdam Babelsberg, interrupted to West Berlin due to the construction of The Wall.
In the middle of the 1990s, some years after German reunification and the opening of the line Potsdam-Wannsee, the station was rebuilt and renewed. The old platforms and the little rail hub, built in early 20th Century, were demolished. The new name “Park Sanssouci”, initially applied for tourist traffic only in 1999, took place of “Wildpark” about one year later.
The Kaiserbahnhof Potsdam is a railroad station near the New Palace (Neues Palais). Its construction was initiated in 1905 by German Emperor (Kaiser) Wilhelm II, and it was used as his private station. The first official guests were Theodore Roosevelt in 1910 and the Czar Nicholas II of Russia.
From 1939 it was used by the high command of the Luftwaffe and, during the Second World War, for the special train of Hermann Göring, who was Luftwaffe chief. After 1945, it was the terminus station of the Blue Express, a train used by the Soviet military command on the route Moscow–Berlin.
Beginning in 1952, it was owned by the East German state railway company (Deutsche Reichsbahn) and subsequently used as a political school and cultural venue and for Transport Police (Transportpolizei) until its closure in 1977 due to deterioration.
On 16 June 2005, the station was reopened after restoration. The building is used as an academy for senior executives of the German national railway Deutsche Bahn and usually is not publicly accessible.
Apart from the Kaiserbahnhof, Park Sanssouci station counts a minor building, used as passengers reception hall, named Bürgerbahnhof. This wood-made structure is a rare representative of the station architecture from the 1860s. In front of it there is an entrance gate to the park named Posttor.