Overburden Conveyor Bridge F60

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke

Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke (24 January 1889 – 4 July 1968) was a German general of paratroop forces during World War II. He led units in Crete, North Africa, Italy, the Soviet Union and France, and was captured by American forces at the conclusion of the Battle for Brest in September 1944. He was a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds, one of only 27 people in the German military so decorated.

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-548-0725-28, Nordafrika, Bernhard-Hermann Ramcke (cropped).jpg

World War I 

Born in 1889, Ramcke joined the Imperial German Navy in 1905 and served during the First World War. Ramcke fought in the West with the Marine-Infanterie, mainly in the area of Flanders. In 1916 he was decorated with the Iron Cross second class and later the Iron Cross first class. After a defensive action against three British attacks he was decorated with the Prussian Golden Merit Cross, the highest decoration for non-commissioned officers in the German Imperial Forces.

In 1919 Ramcke fought against the Bolshevik forces in the Baltic region as a member of the “Russian Army of the West”, composed mostly of German veterans. Ramcke stayed in the Reichswehr during the Weimar Republic period. He continued to serve in the new Wehrmacht, attaining the rank of Oberstleutnant in 1937.

World War II 

Ramcke (left) and Student in 1941.

On 19 July 1940, Ramcke was transferred to the 7th Fliegerdivision under the command of General Kurt Student and was promoted to Oberst. At the age of 51 he successfully completed the parachute qualification course. In May 1941 working with the division Stab he helped plan and also took part in Operation Merkur, the airborne attack on Crete. Forces under his command captured an airfield which was used to fly in reinforcements. After the costly victory in Crete, remainders of several paratroop units were formed into an ad hoc brigade, and command was given to Ramcke. He was promoted to Generalmajor on 22 July 1941. While on Crete, Ramcke ordered his men to attack civilians in villages where the mutilated bodies of German paratroopers had been found.

In 1942, Ramcke’s unit, later known as Ramcke Parachute Brigade, was sent to North Africa to join Rommel’s Afrikakorps. The brigade supported the offensive towards the Suez Canal, but when the offensive got bogged down they entered the line at El Alamein.  During the withdrawal of the Afrikakorps, the Brigade was surrounded and written off as lost by the high command since it had no organic transport. Rather than surrender, Ramcke led his troops out of the British trap and headed west, losing about 450 men in the process. They soon captured a British supply column that provided not only trucks, but also food, tobacco and other luxuries. About 600 of the paras later rejoined the Afrikakorps in late November 1942. Ramcke was sent back to Germany, where he was awarded the Oak Leaves to the Knights Cross personally by Adolf Hitler.

Image result for Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke & kurt student

In 1943 Ramcke, now a generalleutnant, took command of 2nd Parachute Division and transferred to Italy. When Italy signed the armistice with the Allies on 8 September 1943, the division took part in Operation Achse to seize the country. Ramcke led his division in an assault on Italian Army units near Rome, and captured the city two days later. He was badly injured when an Italian aircraft ran his car off the road, and was medically evacuated to Germany.

Also in 1943, Ramcke completed a memoir entitled From Cabin Boy to Paratroop General. The book was published by Franz Eher Nachfolger, the NSDAP Party’s press, and Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels ordered all German mayors to purchase a copy. A total of 400,000 copies of the book were sold, which considerably enriched Ramcke as well as Hitler, who owned a large share of the publisher.

Ramcke returned to service in mid February 1944. At this time the 2nd Parachute Division was deployed to the Eastern Front where it was retreating. Ramcke soon fell ill, and returned to Germany on 17 March. He rejoined the division, which was now stationed near Cologne, on 5 or 6 May.

Following the Allied D-Day landings on 6 June, 2nd Parachute Division was sent to the Brittany region of France, and took up defensive positions at Brest. Following Operation Cobra, the allied breakout from Normandy, Major-General Troy H. Middleton‘s U.S. VIII Corps hooked left from Normandy and attacked the Brittany region. The German forces in the region fell back on Brest, and Ramcke assumed command of the garrison, now known as Festung Brest. Commanding about 30,000 German troops during the Battle for Brest, Ramcke was ordered by Hitler to fight to the last man. He was determined to carry out this order, and justified doing so on the grounds that continuing the resistance at Brest would divert Allied forces away from Germany. Prior to the start of the battle Ramcke evacuated large numbers of French civilians from Brest. Ramcke deployed the paratroopers to strengthen positions held by poorly trained and equipped units, including the 343rd Infantry Division, who made up most of the garrison. He also ordered the destruction of all facilities in Brest which could be used by the Allied forces for any purpose. The Battle for Brest began on 21 August. After heavy fighting, US Army forces pierced Brest’s defences by 13 September. On that day Middleton sent Ramcke a letter proposing that he surrender the garrison “with honour”, but he rejected the overture. After learning of Ramcke’s decision, Middleton instructed his men to “take the Germans apart”. Historian Derek R. Mallett has called Ramcke’s actions during the Battle of Brest “fanatical”.

Most of the surviving German soldiers surrendered on 18 September, but Ramcke attempted to escape from the city. Ramcke led what the US Army official history described as “a group of diehards”, which was forced to surrender on 19 September.

On the same day he was awarded the Swords (99th Recipient) & Diamonds (20th recipient) to the Knights Cross. Ramcke’s career was unusual in that he served in all three branches of the German armed forces. 


After being taken prisoner, Ramcke was interrogated by an American officer. During this interrogation he expressed strong support for the NSDAP Party, claimed that Germany was a “clean innocent nation greatly wronged by other nations” and that after the war he would prepare his sons to help Germany rise again. The American officer judged that Ramcke was “an egotistical, conceited Nazi” and “a firm believer in Hitler and greatly inclined to the [NSDAP] Party”.  Ramcke was then transferred to the Trent Park facility for captured senior German officers in London. The British officers who ran the facility also considered him to be one of the most vocal supporters of the NSDAP Party they had encountered. A report prepared on Ramcke stated that “if there [was] to be such a thing as a list of especially dangerous men to be kept under surveillance [after the war], General Ramcke ought to qualify as one of the first candidates”. While at Trent Park, Ramcke boasted about destroying Brest in a conversation with Dietrich von Choltitz, the last commander of German-occupied Paris. von Choltitz believed that Ramcke’s actions constituted a war crime.

Ramcke at Trent Park

Ramcke was later moved to the United States as a prisoner of war. On 1 January 1946 he briefly escaped from Camp Clinton, Mississippi to post letters protesting about American propaganda campaigns and the withdrawal of tobacco and other luxury items from the POWs to Byron Price, the director of the Office for Censorship, and Senator James Eastland. After the camp authorities learned of Ramcke’s escape, he was transferred to Camp Shelby in Mississippi and held in solitary confinement on a diet of bread and water for four days.

Ramcke was returned to Europe in March 1946. After a brief period in Belgium, he was transferred to the London Cage. Historian Helen Fry has written that he was considered at this time to be a “bombastic nasty man who sought to blame others for the crimes of the regime”. During his interrogation at the London Cage Ramcke retracted claims that New Zealand soldiers, including Māori personnel, had committed atrocities during the fighting on Crete which were contained in the book of memoirs he had written while in American custody. Ramcke was later transferred to a camp at Lüneburg and gave evidence in Student‘s war crimes trial. He was greatly angered when Student was convicted.

From 1946 Ramcke was held in French custody awaiting trial for war crimes relating to the fighting at Brest. The crimes he was charged with included the execution of French civilians, the looting of civilian property and the intentional destruction of civilian houses. After being held in custody for 57 months he escaped to Germany to see his family, but surrendered himself soon afterwards. Following a trial, he was found guilty on 21 March 1951, and sentenced to five years and six months imprisonment. He was released after three months imprisonment either on account of his age or due to having already been held in French captivity for five years before the verdict. 

Following his release from nearly seven years captivity, Ramcke, through his public actions, became seen as a dedicated nationalist by his fellow generals and supported extreme right-wing movements such as the Naumann-Kreis in Germany.  During an address to a meeting of the German paratrooper veterans’ association in July 1951, Ramcke criticised what he claimed was Allied defamation of former German soldiers, and called for the release of “so called war criminals”.  At a rally of SS veterans in October 1952 Ramcke gave a lengthy speech critical of the western Allies, during which he claimed that they were the real war criminals.

In November 1952, Ramcke told a group of former SS-men attending a HIAG meeting they should be proud of being blacklisted, while stating that in the future their blacklist would instead be seen as a “list of honor”. Ramcke’s remarks caused a furor in Germany; even the former SS General Felix Steiner distanced himself from them.  Konrad Adenauer was so furious with Ramcke’s remarks that he directed Thomas Dehler, the German federal Minister of Justice, to investigate the possibility of prosecuting Ramcke. Adenauer publicly decried Ramcke’s remarks as “irresponsible” and his associated behavior as “foolishness”—a reaction probably prompted because Adenauer’s government had made a significant effort to obtain early release for Ramcke from French imprisonment. 

Ramcke and his supporters argued that the intent of his actions following the war was to again seek to protect his men, both in their reputations and their future, such as in cautioning against their being used as “cannon fodder” in the speech to ex-paratroopers during the rearmament debate. This was consistent with his behavior throughout his career during which his superiors found him to be a demanding subordinate in his advocacy for the needs of his men. Ramcke published two autobiographies, one during the war and the other in 1951. He died in 1968.



  • Vom Ritterkreuzträger zum Angeklagten. Nation-Europa-Verlag, Coburg 2001. ISBN 3-920677-57-9.
  • Fallschirmjäger. Schütz, Preußisch Oldendorf 1973.
  • Fallschirmjäger, damals und danach. Lorch, Frankfurt am Main 1951.
  • Vom Schiffsjungen zum Fallschirmjäger-General. Verlag Die Wehrmacht, Berlin 1943.


Albert Kesselring

Kurt Student

Housework adds 3 years to your life (if you’re a woman)… but cleaning, hoovering and doing the laundry is of little benefit to men’s health 

It’s probably not the most popular piece of health advice ever dished out – but researchers say that doing the housework can add years to your life.

They found that women who clean, hoover and do the laundry are likely to live almost three years longer.

But men can breathe a sigh of relief – housework appears to have little effect on them. They are better off in the garden, according to research by Dutch academics.

Read more here

German Infantry Fighting Vehicle – Puma (IFV)

Puma (IFV)

Puma, first series.jpg

The Puma is a German infantry fighting vehicle (Schützenpanzer or short SPz) designed to replace the aging Marder IFVs currently in service with the German Army. Production of the first batch of 350 vehicles began in 2010 and is scheduled for completion by August 2020. A second batch of 210 Pumas has received funding. Mass production began on 6 July 2009. The companies responsible for this project are Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Rheinmetall Landsysteme, who created a joint venture in the form of Projekt System Management GmbH (PSM). The Puma is one of the world’s best-protected IFVs, while still having a high power-to-weight ratioSAIC offered a derivative of the Puma as its contender in the now cancelled American GCV Infantry Fighting Vehicle program. 

Type Infantry fighting vehicle
Place of origin Germany
Service history
In service 2015–present
Used by German Army
Production history
Designer Krauss-Maffei Wegmann
Rheinmetall Landsysteme
Designed 1996–2009
Unit cost €8.85 million (without rockets or laser weapon) 
Produced 2009–present
No. built 284 as of 2019 
Mass 31.45 t (level A)
43 t (level C) 
Length 7.6 m 
Width 3.9 m (uparmored) 
Height 3.6 m 
Crew 3 + 6

Armor modular AMAP composite armour
30 mm MK30-2/ABM autocannon
400 rounds
5.56 mm HK MG4 machine gun, to be replaced by the 7.62 mm MG5 
2,000 rounds
Spike LR anti-tank guided missile;
6-shot 76 mm grenade launcher
Engine MTU V10 892 diesel
800 kilowatts (1,100 hp) at 4,250 r/min 
Power/weight 18.6 kW/t 
Suspension hydropneumatic
460 km (road) 
Speed 70 km/h (road)



The Puma (formerly also named Igel (hedgehog) and Panther) started as a follow-up project to the German 1996 “NGP” project (Neue Gepanzerte Plattformen, “New Armored Platforms”). Its aim was to collect ideas for a common base vehicle that could be used for a variety of tasks including that of the APCIFVair defense and replacing and assisting the MBT in the frontline combat role. The NGP project was ended in 2001.

The lessons learned were incorporated into the new tactical concept named neuer Schützenpanzer (“new IFV”) in 1998. Planning for the Puma as the successor of the Marder began in 2002.  That same year, the German Army (Heer) placed an order for the delivery of five pre-production vehicles and their logistics and training services at the end of 2004. On 8 November 2007, a budget of €3 billion to acquire 405 Pumas (excluding the five Pumas that had already been delivered to the German Army for trials) was agreed upon. 

Other nations pursue similar developments emphasizing commonality, modularity and rapid deployability based on a comparable doctrine which was also a subject of discussion within NATO. Examples of these are the American GCV Infantry Fighting Vehicle, the British FRES and the German-Dutch Boxer MRAV.

On 6 December 2010, the first two serial vehicles were handed over to the German Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung. 

The Puma successfully completed cold tests in Norway in 2012. In August 2013, two Pumas were airlifted to the United Arab Emirates for hot weather tests. Trials included suitability for hot weather operations, firing and driving maneuvers in desert conditions, as well as firepower and mobility evaluations. During the trials, the temperature profiles inside the vehicle were measured, then compared to the ambient temperature. 

On 13 April 2015, the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw) granted authorization of use of the Puma IFV. This began a program to “train the trainers” on the first seven vehicles and additional ones until the end of the year, when a training center will be set up to put Panzer Grenadiers of mechanized infantry companies through a three-month course to familiarize them with their Pumas. The Puma officially entered service with the German military on 24 June 2015. 


Given the advanced age of the current Marder IFVs, and because the world market does not offer any vehicle comparable with the specifications to which the Puma is built, the acquisition of the new vehicles was unanimously voted for by the budget committee of the Bundestag.

The delivery of 350 Pumas, replacing the more than 40-year-old Marders, is expected to be completed by 2020. Full operational readiness will be achieved by 2024. The German Army will use €500 million to modernize 40 Pumas by 2023 with more effective weaponry as well as communications technology capable of rapidly providing a situation image and GPS coordinates to fighter jets. 

There are provisions for hard- or soft-kill systems to defeat hostile ATGMs or RPGs, or for future active/reactive armor. There are also mounts and interfaces for the inclusion of ATGMs on the right side of the turret.

Its large weight reserves and the compact cabin make it very attractive for modification. Most vital integrals are situated in the front, floor, and side walls, which may remain unchanged during such a cabin-oriented modification.


View of troop compartment

The Puma, while externally not very different from existing IFVs, incorporates a number of advances and state-of-the-art technologies. The most obvious of these is the incorporated ability to flexibly mount different armour (see below for details). Another feature is the compact, one-piece crew cabin that enables direct crew interaction (“face-to-face”; like replacing the driver or gunner in case of a medical emergency) and minimizes the protected volume. The cabin is air conditioned, NBC-proof with internal nuclear and chemical sensors and has a fire suppressing system using non-toxic agents. The engine compartment has its own fire extinguishing system. The only compromise of the otherwise nearly cuboid cabin is the driver station, located in a protrusion in front of the gunner, in front of the turret.

One measure to achieve the one-piece cabin is the use of an unmanned, double-asymmetrical turret (see photo): while slightly off-center turrets are common in IFVs, the Puma’s turret is on the left-hand side of the vehicle, while the main cannon is mounted on the right side of the turret and thus on the middle axis of the hull when the turret is in the forward position.

The outer hull (minus the turret) is very smooth and low to minimize bullet traps and the general visual signature. The whole combat-ready vehicle in its base configuration will be air transportable in the Airbus A400M tactical airlifter. Its 3+6 persons crew capability is comparable to other vehicles of comparable weight, like the US American M2 Bradley IFV, the same as in the Marder, but smaller than the 3+8 of the CV9030 and CV9035.


MK 30-2/ABM

The primary armament is a Rheinmetall 30 mm MK 30-2/ABM (Air Burst Munitionsautocannon, which has a rate of fire of 200 rounds per minute and an effective range of 3,000 m. The smaller 30×173mm cartridge offers major weight saving advantages for example in comparison to the Bofors 40 mm gun mounted on the CV9040 because of a much lower ammunition size and weight. The belt feed system also gives a large number of rounds ready to fire, while the 40mm offers only 24 shots per magazine. This is not a problem in a CV9040, but would force the Puma off the battlefield to reload the unmanned turret.

There are currently two ammunition types directly available via the autocannon’s dual ammunition feed. One is a sub-calibre, fin-stabilised APFSDS-T (T for tracer), with high penetration capabilities, mainly for use against medium armoured vehicles. The second is a full-calibre, multi-purpose, Kinetic Energy-Timed Fuse (KETF) munition, designed with the air burst capability (depending on the fuse setting) for ejecting a cone of sub-munitions. The ammunition type can be chosen on a shot to shot basis, as the weapon fires from an open bolt, meaning no cartridge is inserted until the trigger is depressed. The ammunition capacity is 400 rounds; 200 ready to fire and 200 in storage.

A Puma of Panzergrenadier Battalion 33 during a live-fire exercise at Bergen-Hohne Training Area in 2016.

Keeping the weight within the 35-ton limit also led to a smaller calibre for the secondary armament, a coaxially mounted 5.56 mm HK MG4 machine gun firing at 850 rounds per minute and with an effective range of 1,000 m. The ammunition capacity is 2,000 rounds; 1,000 ready to fire and 1,000 in storage. While this is a smaller weapon than the western standard secondary armament (7.62 mm caliber MG), it offers the advantage that the crew can use the ammunition in their individual firearms. In situations where the lower range and penetration of the 5.56 mm rounds is an issue, the high ammunition load of the main gun enables the vehicle crew to use one or two main gun rounds instead. The gun housing can also host the 7.62 mm MG3. In next years, the MG4 will be replaced by MG5 

To combat main battle tanks, helicopters and infrastructure targets, such as bunkers, the German Puma vehicles will be equipped with a turret-mounted EuroSpike Spike LR missile launcher, which carries two missiles. The Spike LR missile has an effective range up to 4,000 m and can be launched in either the “Fire and Forget” or “Fire and Observe” mode.

In addition to the usual smoke-grenade launchers with 8 shots, there is a 6-shot 76 mm launcher at the back of the vehicle for close-in defence. The main back door can be opened halfway and enables two of the passengers to scout and shoot from moderate protection.


The Puma was designed to accommodate additional armor, initially planning to offer three protection classes which are wholly or partly interchangeable. Protection class A is the basic vehicle, at 31.5 metric tons combat-ready weight air transportable in the A400M. Protection class C consists of two large side panels that cover almost the whole flanks of the vehicle and act as skirts to the tracks, a near-complete turret cover and armor plates for most of the vehicle’s roof. The side panels are a mix of composite and spaced armor. It adds about 9 metric tons to the gross weight. Originally, there was also a protection class B designed for transport by rail. However, it became obvious that class C lies within the weight and dimension limits for train/ship transportation, thus class B was scrapped.

The Puma is protected by AMAP composite armour, the AMAP-B module is used for protection against kinetic energy threats, while AMAP-SC offers protection against shaped charges.

A group of four A400M aircraft could fly three class A Pumas into a theatre, with the fourth airplane transporting the class C armor kits and simple lifting equipment. The Pumas could be built-up to armor class C within a short time.

The basic armour can resist direct hits from 14.5 mm Russian rounds, the most powerful HMG cartridge in common use today (and up to twice as powerful as the western de facto standard .50 BMG cartridge). The frontal armour offers protection against medium caliber projectiles and shaped charge projectiles. In protection class C, the flanks of the Puma are up-armored to about the same level of protection as is the front, while the roof armor is able to withstand artillery or mortar bomblets.

The Pumas of the German Army will be equipped with a soft-kill system called Multifunktionales Selbstschutz-System (multifunction self protection system), MUSS, which is capable of defeating ATGMs. 

The whole vehicle is protected against heavy blast mines (up to 10 kg) and projectile charges from below, while still retaining 450 mm ground clearance. Almost all equipment within the cabin, including the seats, has no direct contact to the floor, which adds to crew and technical safety. All cabin roof hatches are of the side-slide type, which make them easier to open manually, even when they are obstructed by debris. The exhaust is mixed with fresh air and vented at the rear left side. Together with a special IR-suppressing paint, this aims at reducing the thermal signature of the IFV.

Another crew safety measure is that the main fuel tanks are placed outside of the vehicle hull itself, mounted heavily armored within the running gear carriers. While this may pose a higher penetration risk to the tanks, it is unlikely that both tanks will be penetrated at the same time, enabling the vehicle to retreat to a safer position in case of a breach. There is also a collector tank within the vehicle, which acts as a reserve tank in case of a double tank breach.

A large number of change requests and bureaucratic requirements drove up costs, including, for example, the legal requirement that, according to the German Workplace Ordinance, the transport of pregnant female soldiers must also still be possible.

Sensors and situational awareness 

PERI sight for the commander.

Gunner’s sight in the center. On the right, the MUSS front sensor.

The Puma offers improvements in situational awareness. The fully stabilized 360° periscope (PERI) with six different zoom stages offers a direct glass optic link to either the commander or the gunner. Since this is an optical line, it had to be placed in the turret center, one of the reasons why the main cannon is mounted off-center on the turret. Via an additional CCD camera the picture from this line can also be fed into the on-board computer network and displayed on all electronic displays within the vehicle. Besides that, the periscope offers an optronic thermal vision mode and a wide-angle camera with three zoom stages to assist the driver, as well as a laser range finder. The whole array is hunter-killer capable; the commander also has 5 vision blocks.

The gunner optics, which can be completely protected with a slide hatch, are mounted coaxially to the main gun. The gunner has a thermal vision camera and laser range finder (identical to those on the PERI) and an optronic day sight, rounded off with a vision- and a glass block. The driver has three of them, as well as an image intensifier and one display for optronic image feeds. Even the passenger cabin has a hatch and three vision blocks on the rear right side of the vehicle, one of them in a rotary mount. The rear cabin also has two electronic displays.

All in all, the Puma has an additional five external cameras at its rear in swing-mounts for protection while not in use. Apart from the glass optic periscope view directly accessible only by the commander and gunner (but indirectly via the CCD camera), all optronic picture feeds can be displayed on every electronic display within the vehicle. The provisions for the rear cabin enable the passengers to be more active than previously in assisting the vehicle crew either directly through the vision blocks and hatches, or by observing one or more optronic feeds. The whole crew has access to the onboard intercom.


Traditionally, IFVs are expected to interact with MBTs on the battlefield. In reality, many IFVs are not mobile enough to keep up with the pace of a Main Battle Tank. The Puma aims to close this gap with several key technologies. Firstly, its compact, lightweight MTU Diesel engine is unusually strong at 800 kW nominal output, which may make it the most powerful engine in use on an IFV today. Even at the 43 t maximum weight in protection class C, it has a higher kW/t ratio than the Leopard 2 MBT it is supposed to supplement.

The vehicle prototypes have a five-road wheel decoupled running gear and use a hydropneumatic suspension to improve cross-country performance while reducing crew and material stress by limiting vibrations and noise. The road wheels are asymmetrical, mounted closer to each other at the front. This is to counter the front-heavy balance, inevitable because of the heavy frontal armor as well as the engine and drive train which are also situated at the front. The 500mm-wide steel tracks made by Diehl are of new construction and lighter than previous designs.

The serial production vehicles will have a symmetrical arranged six road wheel running gear as shown on released pictures by the manufacturer. 

Current operator 

The Puma has been in service with the German Army since April 2015. 284 vehicles have been delivered as of 2019. Originally 405 were ordered, but on 11 July 2012 the order was reduced to 350. In June 2019 the German Army secured financing for a second batch of 210 Pumas. 


Puma IFV

This article will document the main design aspects of the Puma.

Read more here at German Armor Blog

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Eppur si Muove: on “Discrimination against Whites”

Europa’s Children

Featured Image: Graffitti painted on a Confederate monument, Augusta, Georgia, 2009

An NPR poll released on October 24, 2017 found that a majority of Whites say discrimination against them exists in America today. This has, predictably, led to much crowing about “fragility,” “lost privilege” and “victim complexes.” A closer look at the poll — and at American history — reveals a far more nuanced story.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary racism first appeared in print in 1902, when Richard Henry Pratt said:

Segregating any class or race of people apart from the rest of the people kills the progress of the segregated people or makes their growth very slow. Association of races and classes is necessary to destroy racism and classism.

Pratt rejected the idea that races or ethnicities were inferior: instead he believed the problem lay in culture.  As he explained in an 1892 speech:


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