Cnut the Great‘s domains
The influence of this period of Scandinavian settlement can still be seen in the North of England and the East Midlands, and is particularly evident in place-names: name endings such as -howe, -by (meaning “village”) or -thorp (“hamlet”) having Norse origins. There seems to be a remarkable number of Kirby/Kirkby names, some with remains of Anglo-Saxon building indicating both a Norse origin and early church building. Scandinavian names blended with the English -ton give rise to typical hybrid place-names.
Old East Norse and Old English were still somewhat mutually comprehensible. The contact between these languages in the Danelaw caused the incorporation of many Norse words into the English language, including the word law itself, sky and window, and the third person pronouns they, them and their. Many Old Norse words still survive in the dialects of Northern England.
Four of the five boroughs became county towns—of the counties of Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. However, Stamford failed to gain such status—perhaps because of the nearby autonomous territory of Rutland.
In 2000, the BBC commissioned a genetic survey of the British Isles by a team from University College London led by Professor David Goldstein for its programme ‘Blood of the Vikings‘. It concluded that Norse invaders settled sporadically throughout the British Isles with a particular concentration in certain areas, such as Orkney and Shetland.
In this finding, the Vikings refers to Norwegian Vikings only, as the study did not set out to genetically distinguish descendants of Danish Vikings from descendants of Anglo-Saxon settlers. That was decided on the basis that the latter two groups originated from areas that overlap each other on the continental North Sea coast (ranging from the Jutland Peninsula to Belgium) and were therefore deemed inconvenient or difficult to genetically distinguish. A further genetic study in 2015 found some evidence that, after the Vikings began settling, the communities had lived side by side and not intermingled for the first hundred years before going on to become a homogenous genetic group, it also found no evidence of the introduction of Viking genes during the earlier raiding period suggesting that the raiders did not participate in rape or at least no children were produced from such actions.
Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lindanise
Christian August Lorentzen
Valdemar II (9 May 1170 – 28 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname Sejr is a later invention and was not used during the King’s own lifetime. Sejr means victory in Danish.