Esperanto (/ˌɛspəˈrɑːnt, –ˈræn-/) is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing the language, Unua Libro (“First Book”), under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as “one who hopes”.

Flag of Esperanto.svg

Users Native: estimated 1000 to several thousand (2016) 
L2 users: estimates range from 63 000 to two million 


Tivadar Soros (Esperanto: Teodoro Ŝvarc; born Theodor Schwarz; 7 April 189322 February 1968) was a Hungarian lawyer, author and editor. He is perhaps best known for being the father of businessman, investor, and philanthropist George Soros, and engineer Paul Soros.

Soros fought in World War I and spent years in a prison camp in Siberia before escaping. He founded the Esperanto literary magazine Literatura Mondo (Literary World) in 1922 and edited it until 1924. He wrote the short novel Modernaj Robinzonoj (Modern Robinsons) (1923), and Maskerado ĉirkaŭ la morto (Masquerade (dance) around death), published 1965, an autobiographical novel about his experience during the German occupation of Budapest, Hungary. Maskerado has been translated into English, Russian, German, Turkish, and Hungarian.



Outline of Esperanto

Esperanto library

Esperanto Wikipedia



The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years. For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was a principal center of Jewish culture, thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy.


Israel and Jews

Total population
14.5–17.5 million
Enlarged population (includes full or partial Jewish ancestry):20.5 million  (2017, est.)
Regions with significant populations
 United States 5,700,000–10,000,000
 France 456,000–600,000
 Canada 390,000–550,000
 United Kingdom 289,500–370,000
 Argentina 180,500–330,000
 Russia 176,000–380,000
 Germany 116,000–225,000
 Australia 113,200–140,000
 Brazil 93,800–150,000
 South Africa 69,300–80,000
 Ukraine 53,000–140,000
 Hungary 47,500–100,000
 Mexico 40,000–50,000
 Netherlands 29,800–52,000
 Belgium 29,300–40,000
 Italy 27,300–41,000
 Colombia 27,000–30,000
  Switzerland 18,700–25,000
 Chile 18,300–26,000
 Uruguay 16,900–25,000
 Turkey 15,300–21,000
 Sweden 15,000–25,000



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