Stolen Land: Breslau

From Wikipedia, so take it with a grain of salt.

Old Town Hall, 1900

The Unification of Germany in 1871 turned Breslau into the sixth-largest city in the German Empire. Its population more than tripled to over half a million between 1860 and 1910. The 1900 census listed 422,709 residents.

In 1890, construction began of Breslau Fortress as the city’s defences. Important landmarks were inaugurated in 1910, the Kaiser bridge (today Grunwald Bridge) and the Technical University, which now houses the Wrocław University of Technology.

Technical University

Politechnika Wroclawska - budynek glowny.jpg

The 1900 census listed 98% of the population as German-speakers, with 5,363 Polish-speakers (1.3%), and 3,103 (0.7%) as bilingual in German and Polish. The population was 58% Protestant, 37% Catholic (including at least 2% Polish) and 5% Jewish (totaling 20,536 in the 1905 census). 

The Jewish community of Breslau was among the most important in Germany, producing several distinguished artists and scientists. [?]

From 1912, the head of the University’s Department of Psychiatry and director of the Clinic of Psychiatry (Königlich Psychiatrischen und Nervenklinik) was Alois Alzheimer and, that same year, professor William Stern introduced the concept of IQ.

Market Square, 1890–1900
Feniks Department Store, built in 1902–1904

In 1913, the newly built Centennial Hall housed an exhibition commemorating the 100th anniversary of the historical German Wars of Liberation against Napoleon and the first award of the Iron Cross.

Wrocław - Jahrhunderthalle5.jpg

Centennial Hall

Following the First World War, Breslau became the capital of the newly created Prussian Province of Lower Silesia of the Weimar Republic in 1919. After the war the Polish community began holding masses in Polish at the Church of Saint Anne, and, as of 1921, at St. Martin’s and a Polish School was founded by Helena Adamczewska. In 1920 a Polish consulate was opened on the Main Square.

In August 1920, during the Polish Silesian Uprising in Upper Silesia, the Polish Consulate and School were destroyed, while the Polish Library was burned down by a mob. The number of Poles as a percentage of the total population fell to just 0.5% after the re-emergence of Poland as a state in 1918, when many moved to Poland.

“Antisemitic” riots occurred in 1923. 

The city boundaries were expanded between 1925 and 1930 to include an area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) with a population of 600,000. In 1929, the Werkbund opened WuWa (GermanWohnungs- und Werkraumausstellung) in Breslau-Scheitnig, an international showcase of modern architecture by architects of the Silesian branch of the Werkbund. In June 1930, Breslau hosted the Deutsche Kampfspiele, a sporting event for German athletes after Germany was excluded from the Olympic Games after World War I. The number of Jews remaining in Breslau fell from 23,240 in 1925 to 10,659 in 1933. Up to the beginning of World War II, Breslau was the largest city in Germany east of Berlin. 

Aerial view of pre-war Breslau, 1920

Known as a stronghold of left wing liberalism during the German Empire, Breslau eventually became one of the strongest support bases of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), who in the 1932 elections received 44% of the city’s vote, their third-highest total in all Germany.

KZ Dürrgoy, one of the first concentration camps in the Third Reich, was set up in Breslau in 1933.

After Hitler‘s appointment as German Chancellor in 1933, political enemies of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) were persecuted, and their institutions closed or destroyed. The Gestapo began actions against Polish and Jewish students (see: Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau), CommunistsSocial Democrats, and trade unionists. Arrests were made for speaking Polish in public, and in 1938 the NSDAP-controlled police destroyed the Polish cultural centre. In September 1941 the city’s 10,000 Jews were displaced from their homes and soon deported to camps. Few survived the “Holocaust”. Also many other people seen as “undesirable” by the Third Reich were sent to concentration camps. A network of concentration camps and forced labour camps was established around Breslau, to serve industrial concerns, including FAMOJunkers and Krupp. Tens of thousands were imprisoned there.

The last big event organised by the National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise, called Deutsches Turn-und-Sportfest (Gym and Sports Festivities), took place in Breslau from 26 to 31 July 1938. The Sportsfest was held to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the German Wars of Liberation against Napoleon’s invasion.

Second World War

For most of World War II, the fighting did not affect Breslau. During the war, the Germans opened the graves of medieval Polish monarchs and local dukes to carry out anthropological research for propaganda purposes, wanting to demonstrate their “racial purity“. The remains were transported to other places by the Germans, and have not been found to this day. In 1941 the remnants of the pre-war Polish minority in the city, as well as Polish slave labourers, organised a resistance group called Olimp. The organisation gathered intelligence, carrying out sabotage and organising aid for Polish slave workers. As the war continued, refugees from bombed-out German cities, and later refugees from farther east, swelled the population to nearly one million, including 51,000 forced labourers in 1944, and 9,876 Allied PoWs. At the end of 1944 an additional 30,000–60,000 Poles were moved into the city after Germans crushed the Warsaw Uprising.

During the war the Germans operated four subcamps of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp in the city. Approximately 3,400-3,800 men of different nationalities were imprisoned in three subcamps, among them PolesRussiansItaliansFrenchmenUkrainiansCzechsBelgiansYugoslavsChinese, and about 1,500 Jewish women were imprisoned in the fourth camp. Many prisoners died, and the remaining were evacuated to the main camp of Groß-Rosen in January 1945.

Blindfolded German army officers walking to negotiate the capitulation of Festung Breslau, 6 May 1945

 

In February 1945 the Soviet Red Army approached the city. Gauleiter Karl Hanke declared the city a Festung (fortress) to be held at all costs. Hanke finally lifted a ban on the evacuation of women and children when it was almost too late. During his poorly organised evacuation in January 1945, 18,000 people froze to death in icy snowstorms and −20 °C (−4 °F) weather. By the end of the Battle of Breslau (February–May 1945), half the city had been destroyed. An estimated 40,000 civilians lay dead in the ruins of homes and factories. After a siege of nearly three months, Festung Breslau capitulated on 6 May 1945, two days before the end of the war.

In August the Soviets placed the city under the control of German anti-fascists.

Following on from the Yalta Conference held in February 1945 when the new Geopolitics of Central Europe were decided, the terms of the Potsdam Conference decreed that with almost all of Lower Silesia, the city would become part of Poland in exchange for Poland’s loss of the city of Lwów along with the massive territory of Kresy to the East. The Polish name of “Wrocław” was declared official. There had been discussion among the Western Allies to place the southern Polish-German boundary on the Glatzer Neisse, which meant post-war Germany would have been allowed to retain approximately half of Silesia, including Breslau. However, the Soviets insisted the border be drawn at the Lusatian Neisse farther west.

After the war 

In August 1945, the city had a German population of 189,500, and a Polish population of 17,000. After World War II the region once again became part of Poland under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union in the Potsdam Agreement. The town’s inhabitants, who had not fled or who had safely returned to their home town after the war officially had ended, were expelled between 1945 and 1949 in accordance to the Potsdam Agreement and were settled in the Soviet occupation zone and Allied Occupation Zones in the remainder of Germany. The city’s last pre-war German school was closed in 1963.

The Polish population was dramatically increased by the resettlement of Poles during postwar population transfers during the forced deportations from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union in the east region, some of whom came from Lviv (Lwów), Volhynia and Vilnius Region. A small German minority (about 1,000 people, or 2% of the population) remains in the city, so that today the relation of Polish to German population is the reverse of the relation 100 years ago.

Traces of the German past such as inscriptions and signs were removed.

Wrocław is now a unique European city of mixed heritage, with architecture influenced by BohemianAustrian and Prussian traditions, such as Silesian Gothic and its Baroque style of court builders of Habsburg Austria (Fischer von Erlach). Wrocław has a number of notable buildings by German modernist architects including the famous Centennial Hall (Hala Stulecia or Jahrhunderthalle; 1911–1913) designed by Max Berg. In 1948, Wrocław organised the Recovered Territories Exhibition and the World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of PeacePicasso‘s lithograph, La Colombe (The Dove), a traditional, realistic picture of a pigeon, without an olive branch, was created on a napkin at the Monopol Hotel in Wrocław during the World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace.

In 1963, Wrocław was declared a closed city because of a smallpox epidemic.

In 1982, during martial law in Poland, the anti-communist underground organizations, Fighting Solidarity and Orange Alternative were founded in Wrocław. Wrocław’s dwarves made of bronze famously grew out of and commemorate Orange Alternative.

In 1983 and 1997, Pope John Paul II visited the city.

PTV Echo, the first non-state television station in Poland and in the post-communist countries, began to broadcast in Wrocław on 6 February 1990.

In May 1997, Wrocław hosted the 46th International Eucharistic Congress.

In July 1997, the city was heavily affected by a flood of the River Oder, the worst flooding in post-war Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic. About one-third of the area of the city was flooded. An earlier equally devastating flood of the river took place in 1903. A small part of the city was also flooded during the flood in 2010. From 2012 to 2015, the Wrocław water node was renovated and redeveloped to prevent further flooding. It cost more than 900 million PLN (c. 220 million euro).

Environment

The city stretches for 26.3 kilometers on the east–west line and 19.4 kilometers on the north–south line.

Air pollution

Map of Wrocław’s areas where PM10 standards were exceeded in 2015

Wrocław is one of the most polluted European and Polish cities. In a report by French Respire organization from 2014, Wrocław was named the eighth most polluted European city, with 166 days of bad air quality yearly. Air pollution mainly occurs in winter.

According to the Wrocław University research from 2017, high concentration of particular matters (PM2.5 and PM 10) in the air causes 942 premature deaths of Wrocław inhabitants per year. Air pollution also causes 3297 cases of bronchitis among Wrocław’s children per year.

84% of Wrocław inhabitants think that air pollution is a serious social problem, according to the poll from May 2017. 73% of people think, that air quality is bad.

In 2012, there were 71 days, when the PM10 standards, set by Cleaner Air For Europe Directive, were exceeded. In 2014, there were 104 such days.

In February 2018, Wrocław was the most polluted city on Earth, according to the Airvisual website, which measures the air quality index.

In 2014, inhabitants founded an organization, called the Lower Silesian Smog Alert (Dolnośląski Alarm Smogowy, DAS), to tackle the air pollution problem. Its goals are to educate the public and to reduct emission of harmful substances.

Population

Breslau Old Town

Breslau Opera

The “Wrocław Opera” is an opera company and opera house in Wrocław, Poland. The opera house was opened in 1841 and up to 1945 was named after the city’s then German name, Oper Breslau.

Wrocław - Opera Wrocławska.jpg

Source: Wikipedia

Hotel Monopol Wrocław (01).jpg

These beautiful buildings and the ground they stands on was stolen by Poland and the Judeo-Slavic people.

Poland is the country where most immigrants come from in UK, Ireland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark and number two in Germany.

Eastern Europe is our Mexico!

Wroclaw Uniwersytet Wroclawski przed switem.jpg

Ordensburg Marienburg

Königsberg Castle

Breslau Puppet Theater

Breslau Water Tower

The Polish Atrocities Against The German Minority In Poland…!

Hans Schadewaldt – The Polish Atrocities against the German Minority in Poland

Polish atrocities against Germans

EDWARD SMIGLY-RYDZ:MEET THE MAN WHO STARTED WORLD WAR II

The Expulsion and Extermination of Eastern European Germans: An Overview

Post-War Jewish Ethnic Cleansing of Germans: Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia

Ethnic Cleansing of Germans 1945 – 1950

Map: Distribution of German speakers prior to and after 1945.

The Disappearance of the Eastern Germans

Stolen Land – Oder–Neisse line

The truth fears no investigation

Read about WWII here

Reichsbürger

Reichsbürgerbewegung

Germania & The Niederwalddenkmal

Stolen Land – Oder–Neisse line

Never Forget!

Germany

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s