The Cheka was the first Soviet secret police and stood for: All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage. The Red Terror (1918) was an important element of the Russian Revolution that showed the violent character of the Bolshevik regime led by Vladimir Lenin. The Cheka was led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. Underlaying causes were the Left-SR uprising and the assassination attempt on Lenin by Fanny Kaplan. Hundreds of thousands of people would die at the hands of the Cheka.
Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński[ˈfɛliɡz dʑɛrˈʐɨj̃skʲi];[a]Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; 11 September [O.S. 30 August] 1877 – 20 July 1926), nicknamed “Iron Felix“, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and official. Born into Polish nobility, from 1917 until his death in 1926 Dzerzhinsky led the first two Soviet state-security organizations, the Cheka and the OGPU, establishing a secret police for the post-revolutionarySoviet regime. He was one of the architects of the Red Terror and decossackization.