The University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden (Danish: Botanisk have), usually referred to simply as Copenhagen Botanical Garden, is a botanical garden located in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 10 hectares and is particularly noted for its extensive complex of historical glasshouses dating from 1874.
The first garden: Hortus Medicus
The botanical garden was first established in 1600 but it was moved twice before it was ultimately given its current location in 1870. It was probably founded to secure a collection of Danish medicinal plants after the Reformation had seen many convents and their gardens abandoned or demolished.
The current garden
The botanical gardens got its current location in 1870. Four years later in 1874 the gardens got its large complex of glasshouses at the initiative of Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen who also funded it. His inspiration was that of the glass building the Crystal Palace that was erected for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851.
In 1977 the gardens, including the greenhouses, became listed by Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces, the Danish conservancy authorities.
Copenhagen Botanical Garden today
Copenhagen Botanical Garden is an informal garden with free admission. There are conservatories, a museum and herbarium, a library (admission by appointment only) a shop plants, seeds and a small selection of garden equipment and eating place.
The botanical gardens contain more than 13,000 species. The garden is arranged in different sections including: Danish plants (600 species), perennial plants (1,100 species), annual plants (1,100 species), rock gardens with plants from mountainous areas in Central and Southern Europe and Conifer Hill which is planted with coniferous trees. One of the newest inclusions is a rhododendron garden
The garden has many handsome specimen trees. The oldest tree in the gardens is a taxodium from 1806 that was moved along from the old location at an age of 60 years.
The Gardens have 27 glasshouses. The most notable is the 3000-square metre conservatory complex from 1874. The Palm House at its centre is 16 metres tall and has narrow, cast-iron spiral stairs leading to a passageway at the top. Plants include a palm from 1824 and a fine collection of cycads, some of which are more than 100 years old. A fifty metres long glasshouse house an extensive collection of cacti and other succulents whilst another one houses orchids and begonias. A modern glasshouse is dedicated to caudiciforms. The garden also has a special air-conditioned greenhouse that can re-create environments suitable for Arctic plants.
The Palm House
Here is the list of some plant species growing at the Palm House:
- Erythroxylum novogranatense
- Impatiens walleriana
- Camellia sinensis
- Sphaeralcea rusbyi
- Alyxia buxifolia
- Lobelia laxiflora
- Luma apiculata
- Solanum viarum
- Syzygium aromaticum
- Senna occidentalis
- Catharanthus roseus
- Flacourtia indica
- Asplenium nidus
- Begonia masoniana
- Ixora coccinea
- Castanospermum australe
- Zamia muricata
- Campanula poscharskyana
- Morus nigra
- Campylandra yunnanensis [sv]
- Asparagus krebsianus
- Clavija repanda [sv]
- Gymnosporia pyria [sv]
- Aglaonema nitidum [sv]
- Ficus palmeri [sv]
- Ficus rumphii
- Pithecellobium unguis-cati [sv]
- Chirita tamiana [sv]
- Euphorbia spectabilis [sv]
- Platycerium willinckii [es]
- Bois d’ortie [fr]
- Stenochlaena tenuifolia
- Streptocarpus brevipilosus
- Streptocarpus ionanthus subsp. velutinus(formerly Saintpaulia velutina)
- Coccoloba tiliacea
- Uncarina grandidieri
Museum and seed bank
The university’s botanical museum and herbarium are housed in a building situated within the garden, giving the garden staff ready access to reference works and more than 2 million dried plant specimens.
Social Sciences Faculty Library
Located at 140 Gothersgade, the building was designed by Johan Daniel Herholdt and built from 1888 to 1890 as botanical Laboratory. It is a Historicist building inspired by Italian palazzi, a style which Herholt had previously relied on in his now demolished National Bank at Holmens Kanal. The building has housed the faculty library of the Faculty of Social Sciences since 2011.
Institute of Psychology
Institute of Psychology, at 2A Øster Farimagsgade, is based in a building which was built in 1957 to the design of Kai Gottlob for the Institute of Biology at University of Copenhagen.
Today, more than 23,000 different registered plants are grown, spread over a number of open-air sections and greenhouses. The different sections are constructed with soil conditions corresponding to different plant groups.
The outdoor sections shall includes:
Danish quarter with wild Danish plants.
The moraine bed, where plants grow from mountainous areas.
The perennial district with wild perennials.
The stone mounds that are built up against the remains of Østervold’s old fortifications. Here, mountain plants grow in different soil types.
The spruce tray planted with conifers.
East Asian neighborhood with wild plants from China and elsewhere in East Asia.
In addition, there are 27 greenhouses with different plant groups and growing conditions.
More to come.