Self-esteem and narcissism
A 2012 study stated that Black individuals have been found to report the highest levels of self-esteem of any racial group in the United States. The study itself found higher levels of narcissism in Blacks than in Whites and also that “the pathological aspects of narcissism were more strongly associated with maladjustment for Black individuals than for White individuals”.
A 2002 study found that Australian Aboriginal secondary school students had higher average self-esteem than Europeans. This has been argued to be remarkable considering the poorer average achievement of Australian Aboriginals. Similar results have been stated to have been found for African Americans in the United States and Africans and Britain.
The high self-esteem also contradicts the argument that low self-esteem (due to factors such as racism by Whites) is causing the low achievement of these groups.
Racial differences regarding self-esteem is one aspect of the differential K theory.
Self-esteem is an individual’s subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, “I am unloved”, “I am worthy”) as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying “The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it.”
Self-esteem is an attractive psychological construct because it predicts certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationships, and criminal behavior. Self-esteem can apply to a specific attribute (for example, “I believe I am a good writer and I feel happy about that”) or globally (for example, “I believe I am a bad person, and I feel bad about myself in general”). Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic (trait self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations (state self-esteem) also exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include many things: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, and self-integrity.
Nursery children of non-western parents are inferior at speaking Danish, have an inferior mathematical understanding and have inferior social skills than children of Danish parents, the study of 13,000 children in Denmark shows.
The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory – Cultural Marxism