Self-Awareness

Thanks to 24 Carat Asshole @KekistaniDiaspora

In philosophy of selfself-awareness is the experience of one’s own personality or individuality. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. While consciousness is being aware of one’s environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that awareness. Self-awareness is how an individual consciously knows and understands their own characterfeelingsmotives, and desires. There are two broad categories of self-awareness: internal self-awareness and external self-awareness.

There are questions regarding what part of the brain allows us to be self-aware and how we are biologically programmed to be self-aware. V.S. Ramachandran has speculated that mirror neurons may provide the neurological basis of human self-awareness. In an essay written for the Edge Foundation in 2009, Ramachandran gave the following explanation of his theory: “… I also speculated that these neurons can not only help simulate other people’s behavior but can be turned ‘inward’—as it were—to create second-order representations or meta-representations of your own earlier brain processes. This could be the neural basis of introspection, and of the reciprocity of self awareness and other awareness. There is obviously a chicken-or-egg question here as to which evolved first, but… The main point is that the two co-evolved, mutually enriching each other to create the mature representation of self that characterizes modern humans.”

Human development

Bodily self-awareness in human development refers to one’s awareness of their body as a physical object, with physical properties, that can interact with other objects. Tests have shown that at the age of only a few months old, toddlers are already aware of the relationship between the proprioceptive and visual information they receive. This is called first-person self-awareness.

At around 18 months old and later, children begin to develop reflective self-awareness, which is the next stage of bodily awareness and involves children recognizing themselves in reflections, mirrors, and pictures. Children who have not obtained this stage of bodily self-awareness yet will tend to view reflections of themselves as other children and respond accordingly, as if they were looking at someone else face to face. In contrast, those who have reached this level of awareness will recognize that they see themselves, for instance seeing dirt on their face in the reflection and then touching their own face to wipe it off.

Slightly after toddlers become reflectively self-aware, they begin to develop the ability to recognize their bodies as physical objects in time and space that interact and impact other objects. For instance, a toddler placed on a blanket, when asked to hand someone the blanket, will recognize that they need to get off it to be able to lift it. This is the final stage of body self-awareness and is called objective self-awareness.

Psychology

Self-awareness has been called “arguably the most fundamental issue in psychology, from both a developmental and an evolutionary perspective.”

Self-awareness theory, developed by Duval and Wicklund in their 1972 landmark book A theory of objective self awareness, states that when we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our current behavior to our internal standards and values. This elicits a state of objective self-awareness. We become self-conscious as objective evaluators of ourselves. However self-awareness is not to be confused with self-consciousness. Various emotional states are intensified by self-awareness. However, some people may seek to increase their self-awareness through these outlets. People are more likely to align their behavior with their standards when made self-aware. People will be negatively affected if they don’t live up to their personal standards. Various environmental cues and situations induce awareness of the self, such as mirrors, an audience, or being videotaped or recorded. These cues also increase accuracy of personal memory. In one of Andreas Demetriou‘s neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, self-awareness develops systematically from birth through the life span and it is a major factor for the development of general inferential processes. Moreover, a series of recent studies showed that self-awareness about cognitive processes participates in general intelligence on a par with processing efficiency functions, such as working memoryprocessing speed, and reasoningAlbert Bandura‘s theory of self-efficacy builds on our varying degrees of self-awareness. It is “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.” A person’s belief in their ability to succeed sets the stage to how they think, behave and feel. Someone with a strong self-efficacy, for example, views challenges as mere tasks that must be overcome, and are not easily discouraged by setbacks. They are aware of their flaws and abilities and choose to utilize these qualities to the best of their ability. Someone with a weak sense of self-efficacy evades challenges and quickly feels discouraged by setbacks. They may not be aware of these negative reactions, and therefore do not always change their attitude. This concept is central to Bandura’s social cognitive theory, “which emphasizes the role of observational learning, social experience, and reciprocal determinism in the development of personality.”

Developmental stages

Individuals become conscious of themselves through the development of self-awareness. This particular type of self-development pertains to becoming conscious of one’s own body and mental state of mind including thoughts, actions, ideas, feelings and interactions with others. “Self-awareness does not occur suddenly through one particular behavior: it develops gradually through a succession of different behaviors all of which relate to the self.” The monitoring of one’s mental states is called metacognition and it is considered to be an indicator that there is some concept of the self.[31] It is developed through an early sense of non-self components using sensory and memory sources. In developing self–awareness through self-exploration and social experiences one can broaden one’s social world and become more familiar with the self.

According to Emory University’s Philippe Rochat, there are five levels of self-awareness which unfold in early development and six potential prospects ranging from “Level 0” (having no self-awareness) advancing complexity to “Level 5” (explicit self-awareness).

  • Level 0: Confusion. At this level the individual has a degree of zero self-awareness. This person is unaware of any mirror reflection or the mirror itself. They perceive the mirror as an extension of their environment. Level 0 can also be displayed when an adult frightens himself in a mirror mistaking his own reflection as another person just for a second.
  • Level 1: Differentiation. The individual realizes the mirror is able to reflect things. They see that what is in the mirror is different from what is surrounding them. At this level they can differentiate between their own movement in the mirror and the movement of the surrounding environment.
  • Level 2: Situation. At this point an individual can link the movements on the mirror to what is perceived within their own body. This is the first hint of self-exploration on a projected surface where what is visualized on the mirror is special to the self.
  • Level 3: Identification. This stage is characterized by the new ability to identify self: an individual can now see that what’s in the mirror is not another person but actually them. It is seen when a child, instead of referring to the mirror while referring to themselves, refers to themselves while looking in the mirror.
  • Level 4: Permanence. Once an individual reaches this level they can identify the self beyond the present mirror imagery. They are able to identify the self in previous pictures looking different or younger. A “permanent self” is now experienced.
  • Level 5: Self-consciousness or “meta” self-awareness. At this level not only is the self seen from a first person view but it is realized that it is also seen from a third person’s view. They begin to understand they can be in the mind of others. For instance, how they are seen from a public standpoint.

Infancy and early childhood

It is to be kept in mind that as an infant comes into this world, they have no concept of what is around them, nor for the significance of others around them. It is throughout the first year that they gradually begin to acknowledge that their body is actually separate from that of their mother, and that they are an “active, causal agent in space”. By the end of the first year, they additionally realize that their movement, as well, is separate from movement of the mother. That is a huge advance, yet they are still quite limited and cannot yet know what they look like, “in the sense that the infant cannot recognize its own face”. By the time an average toddler reaches 18–24 months, they will discover themselves and recognize their own reflection in the mirror, however research has found that this age varies widely with differing socioeconomic levels and differences relating to culture and parenting. They begin to acknowledge the fact that the image in front of them, who happens to be them, moves; indicating that they appreciate and can consider the relationship between cause and effect that is happening. By the age of 24 months the toddler will observe and relate their own actions to those actions of other people and the surrounding environment. Once an infant has gotten a lot of experience, and time, in front of a mirror, it is only then that they are able to recognize themselves in the reflection, and understand that it is them. For example, in a study, an experimenter took a red marker and put a fairly large red dot (so it is visible by the infant) on the infant’s nose, and placed them in front of a mirror. Prior to 15 months of age, the infant will not react to this, but after 15 months of age, they will either touch their nose, wondering what it is they have on their face, or point to it. This indicates the appearance that they recognize that the image they see in the reflection of the mirror is themselves. There is somewhat of the same thing called the mirror-self recognition task, and it has been used as a research tool for numerous years, and has given, and lead to, key foundations of the infant’s sense/awareness of self. For example, “for Piaget, the objectification of the bodily self occurs as the infant becomes able to represent the body’s spatial and causal relationship with the external world (Piaget, 1954).< Facial recognition places a big pivotal point in their development of self-awareness. By 18 months, the infant can communicate their name to others, and upon being shown a picture they are in, they can identify themselves. By two years old, they also usually acquire gender category and age categories, saying things such as “I am a girl, not a boy” and “I am a baby or child, not a grownup”. Evidently, it is not at the level of an adult or an adolescent, but as an infant moves to middle childhood and onwards to adolescence, they develop a higher level of self-awareness and self-description.

As infants develop their senses, using multiple senses of in order to recognize what is around them, infants can become affected by something known as “facial multi stimulation”. In one experiment by Filippetti, Farroni, and Johnson, an infant of around five months in age is given what is known as an “enfacement illusion”. “Infants watched a side-by-side video display of a peer’s face being systematically stroked on the cheek with a paintbrush. During the video presentation, the infant’s own cheek was stroked in synchrony with one video and in asynchrony with the other”. Infants were proven to recognize and project an image of a peer with that of their own, showing beginning signs of facial recognition cues onto one’s self, with the assistance of an illusion.

Piaget

Around school age a child’s awareness of personal memory transitions into a sense of one’s own self. At this stage, a child begins to develop interests along with likes and dislikes. This transition enables the awareness of an individual’s past, present, and future to grow as conscious experiences are remembered more often. As a preschooler, they begin to give much more specific details about things, instead of generalizing. For example, the preschooler will talk about the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, and the New York Rangers hockey team, instead of the infant just stating that he likes sports. Furthermore, they will start to express certain preferences (e.g., Tod likes mac and cheese) and will start to identify certain possessions of theirs (e.g., Lara has a bird as a pet at home). At this age, the infant is in the stage Piaget names the pre operational stage of development. The infant is very inaccurate at judging themselves because they do not have much to go about. For example, an infant at this stage will not associate that they are strong with their ability to cross the jungle gym at their school, nor will they associate the fact that they can solve a math problem with their ability to count.

Adolescence

One becomes conscious of their emotions during adolescence. Most children are aware of emotions such as shameguiltpride and embarrassment by the age of two, but do not fully understand how those emotions affect their life. By age 13, children become more in touch with these emotions and begin to apply them to their own lives. A study entitled “The Construction of the Self” found that many adolescents display happiness and self-confidence around friends, but hopelessness and anger around parents due to the fear of being a disappointment. Teenagers were also shown to feel intelligent and creative around teachers, and shy, uncomfortable and nervous around people they were not familiar with.

In adolescent development, the definition self-awareness also has a more complex emotional context due to the maturity of adolescents compared to those in the early childhood phase, and these elements can include but are not limited to self-image, self-concept, and self–consciousness along many other traits that can relate to Rochat’s final level of self awareness, however it is still a distinct concept within its own previous definition. Social interactions mainly separate the element of self-awareness in adolescent rather than in childhood, as well as further developed emotional recognition skills in adolescents. Sandu, Pânișoară, and Pânișoară demonstrate these in their work with teenagers and demonstrates that there is a mature sense of self-awareness with students who were aged 17, which in term provides a clear structure with how elements like self-concept, self-image, and self-consciousness relate to self-awareness.

Mental health

As children reach their adolescent stages of life, the acute sense of emotion has widened into a meta cognitive state in which mental health issues can become more prevalent due to their heightened emotional and social development. There are elements of contextual behavioral science such as Self-as-Content, Self-as-Process and Self-as-Context, involved with adolescent self-awareness that can associate with mental health. Moran, Almada, and McHugh presented the idea that these domains of self are associated with adolescent mental health in various capacities.[39] Anger management is also a domain of mental health that is associated with the concept of self-awareness in teens. Self-awareness training has been linked to lowering anger management issues and reducing aggressive tendencies in adolescents: “Persons having sufficient self-awareness promote relaxation and awareness about themselves and when going angry, at the first step they become aware of anger in their inside and accept it, then try to handle it”.

Disorders

The medical term for not being aware of one’s deficits is anosognosia, or more commonly known as a lack of insight. Having a lack of awareness raises the risks of treatment and service nonadherence. Individuals who deny having an illness may be against seeking professional help because they are convinced that nothing is wrong with them. Disorders of self-awareness frequently follow frontal lobe damage. There are two common methods used to measure how severe an individual’s lack of self-awareness is. The Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) evaluates self-awareness in patients who have endured a traumatic brain injury. PCRS is a 30-item self-report instrument which asks the subject to use a 5-point Likert scale to rate his or her degree of difficulty in a variety of tasks and functions. Independently, relatives or significant others who know the patient well are also asked to rate the patient on each of the same behavioral items. The difference between the relatives’ and patient’s perceptions is considered an indirect measure of impaired self-awareness. The limitations of this experiment rest on the answers of the relatives. Results of their answers can lead to a bias. This limitation prompted a second method of testing a patient’s self-awareness. Simply asking a patient why they are in the hospital or what is wrong with their body can give compelling answers as to what they see and are analyzing.

Wikipedia

Mirror Test

Self-consciousness

Self-Reflection

Self-Betrayal / Self-Deception

Delusion of Grandeur

Straw Man

Reductio ad Hitlerum

NAXALT Fallacy

Argumentum ad populum

List of fallacies

NIMBY: “not in my back yard“

Soft bigotry of low expectations

Tragedy of the commons

Victim Olympics / Oppression Olympics

Echo Chamber

Moral Compass

Cognitive Reflection Test

Cognitive Dissonance

Dunning–Kruger effect

‘Dunning–Kruger effect’ & ‘The long march through the institutions’

Learned Helplessness

Blinkers

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“Moral high ground”

Virtue Signalling

Grandstand

Ivory Tower

Woke

Woke Capital

SJW

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The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory – Cultural Marxism

The Four stages of ideological subversion

The long march through the institutions

Rules for Radicals

Divide and Rule

Ruling Class

Controlled Opposition

Psychological Warfare

Psychological Manipulation

False Flag

About Globohomo

Both Environment and Genetic Makeup Influence Behavior

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Brooke Shields, Pretty Baby and Hollywood

Brooke Christa Shields (born May 31, 1965) is an American actress and model. She was initially a child model and gained critical acclaim at age 12 for her leading role in Louis Malle‘s film Pretty Baby (1978). Shields garnered widespread notoriety in the role, and she continued to model into her late teenage years and starred in several dramas in the 1980s, including The Blue Lagoon (1980), and Franco Zeffirelli‘s Endless Love (1981).

Wikipedia

Pretty Baby is a 1978 American historical drama film directed by Louis Malle, and starring Brooke ShieldsKeith Carradine, and Susan Sarandon. The screenplay was written by Polly Platt. The plot focuses on a 12-year-old prostitute in the red-light district of New Orleans soon after the turn of the 20th century.

The title of the film is inspired by the Tony Jackson song, “Pretty Baby“, which is used in the soundtrack. Although the film was mostly praised by critics, it caused significant controversy due to its depiction of child prostitution and the nude scenes of Brooke Shields, who was 12 years old at the time.

Content and rating

Pretty Baby received an R rating in the United States, an X rating in the United Kingdom, and an R18+ rating in Australia, for nudity and sexual content. Continuing controversy over Shields’ nude scenes resulted in the film being banned in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Saskatchewan until it was repealed in 1995. Gossip columnist Rona Barrett called the film “child pornography“, and director Louis Malle allegedly was portrayed as a “combination of Lolita‘s Humbert Humbert and (by that point) controversial director Roman Polanski“. In Argentina, the film, along with another of Paramount’s recent releases (Looking for Mr. Goodbar), was banned under the regime of Jorge Rafael Videla during that country’s last civil/military dictatorship due in large part to the “pornographic” content that was present in both films. For five years, the film was also banned by the apartheid regime in South Africa.

In addition to the issue of child prostitution, the scenes involving a nude 12-year-old Brooke Shields were controversial. The BBFC originally censored two scenes for the film’s cinema release in the UK to remove nudity, but the uncut version was released on DVD in 2006. This same uncut print is the basis of the Region 1 and Region 2 DVD editions worldwide.

Distributed byParamount Pictures

Wikipedia

In 1970, Paramount teamed with Universal Studios to form Cinema International Corporation, a new company that would distribute films by the two studios outside the United States. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer would become a partner in the mid-1970s. Both Paramount and CIC entered the video market with Paramount Home Video (now Paramount Home Entertainment) and CIC Video, respectively.

Robert Evans abandoned his position as head of production in 1974; his successor, Richard Sylbert, proved to be too literary and too tasteful for Gulf + Western’s Bluhdorn. By 1976, a new, television-trained team was in place headed by Barry Diller and his “Killer-Dillers”, as they were called by admirers or “Dillettes” as they were called by detractors. These associates, made up of Michael EisnerJeffrey KatzenbergDawn Steel and Don Simpson would each go on and head up major movie studios of their own later in their careers.

The Paramount specialty was now simpler. “high concept” pictures such as Saturday Night Fever and Grease hit big, hit hard and hit fast all over the world, and Diller’s television background led him to propose one of his longest-standing ideas to the board: Paramount Television Service, a fourth commercial network. Paramount Pictures purchased the Hughes Television Network (HTN) including its satellite time in planning for PTVS in 1976. Paramount sold HTN to Madison Square Garden in 1979. But Diller believed strongly in the concept, and so took his fourth-network idea with him when he moved to 20th Century Fox in 1984, where Fox’s then freshly installed proprietor, Rupert Murdoch was a more interested listener.

Wikipedia

Barry Charles Diller (born February 2, 1942) is an American businessman. He is Chairman and Senior Executive of IAC and Expedia Group and founded the Fox Broadcasting Company and USA Broadcasting. Diller was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1994.

Diller was born into a Jewish household in San FranciscoCalifornia, and is the son of Reva (née Addison) and Michael Diller.

Diller served for 10 years as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Paramount Pictures Corporation from 1974 until 1984.

Wikipedia

Michael Dammann Eisner (born March 7, 1942) is an American businessman and former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of The Walt Disney Company from September 1984 to September 2005. Prior to Disney, Eisner was President of rival film studio Paramount Pictures from 1976 to 1984, and had brief stints at the major television networksNBCCBS, and ABC.

Eisner was born to an affluent, secular Jewish family in Mount Kisco, New York.

Wikipedia

Jeffrey Katzenberg (/ˈkætsənbɜːrɡ/; born December 21, 1950) is an American film producer and media proprietor. He became well known for his tenure as chairman of Walt Disney Studios from 1984 to 1994. After departing Disney, he was a co-founder and CEO of DreamWorks Animation, where he oversaw the production of such animated franchises as ShrekMadagascarKung Fu Panda, and How to Train Your Dragon. He has since founded a new media and technology company called WndrCo and was the founder of Quibi, a defunct short-form mobile video platform.

Katzenberg has also been involved in politics. With his active support of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, he was called “one of Hollywood’s premier political kingmakers and one of the Democratic Party‘s top national fundraisers.”

Katzenberg was born in New York City, to a Jewish family, the son of Anne, an artist, and Walter Katzenberg, a stockbroker.

Katzenberg began his career as an assistant to producer David V. Picker, then in 1974 he became an assistant to Barry Diller, the chairman of Paramount Pictures. Diller moved Katzenberg to the marketing department, followed by other assignments within the studio, until he was assigned to revive the Star Trek franchise, which resulted in Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979). He continued to work his way up and became president of production under Paramount’s president, Michael Eisner.

Wikipedia

Dawn Leslie Steel (August 19, 1946 – December 20, 1997) was an American film studio executive and producer. She was one of the first women to run a major Hollywood film studio, rising through the ranks of merchandising and production to head Columbia Pictures in 1987.

Steel was born to a Jewish family in the Bronx, New York to Nathan “Nat” Steel (né Spielberg). Lillian Tarlo Steel, Dawn’s mother, died from lung cancer at age 55. She was the daughter of Nathan and Rebecca Tarlo, Polish immigrants.

Both of her parents were of Russian-Jewish descent.

In 1978, Steel joined Paramount Pictures as Director of Merchandising and Licensing, where she planned marketing tie-ins for Star Trek: The Motion Picture. She was promoted to vice president, and then vice president of production in 1980, senior vice president of production in 1983. She was a protégé of Barry Diller, the CEO of Paramount at the time.

Wikipedia

Donald Clarence Simpson (October 29, 1943 – January 19, 1996) was an American film producer, screenwriter, and actor. 

In 1973, Simpson got a job at Paramount Pictures. By 1977, he was named vice-president of production at Paramount, and president in 1981. He was fired at Paramount in 1982 after passing out during a studio meeting due to drug use.

Wikipedia

Everything you need to know about Hollywood and why you should boycott it

Charlottesville Political Prisoner James Fields Has Been Transported To A Medical Facility

James Fields, a Charlottesville protester who was framed as a terrorist by the media and state, has been transported to MCFP Springfield, a federal medical facility, according to a search of the Bureau Of Prison’s database

The cause for Fields’ hospitalization is not known. National Justice has spoken to multiple people who have remained in contact with Fields throughout his imprisonment who said that he had suddenly stopped responding to letters around three months ago. 

In some of his last letters before cutting contact, Fields complained of horrific conditions at FCI Hazelton, including losing track of time from sensory deprivation due to being in isolation 24 hours a day — conditions that constitute torture according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture. While the facility allows for televisions and radios, Fields has so far been denied these perks. 

National Justice

Remember James Fields

After USNavy, USAirForce trolls Chinese Military!

A think tank with close links to the People’s Republic of China claimed that the U.S. Air Force has been trolling the People’s Liberation Army.

This assertion has been made by the South China Sea Strategic Situation Probing Initiative (SCSPI)—a research policy organization affiliated with Peking University.

As per the think tank which identified an RC-135S Cobra Ball aircraft, its route, and a particular call sign, stated that the U.S. Air Force “is probably calling PLA names.”

This is an interesting assertion. Viewers may note that the think tank supports China’s claims in the South China Sea

In this video Defense Updates analyzes how US Air Force has trolled the Chinese military as it flew near the country’s airspace?

Defense Updates

About China

Jews Were Not ‘Forced’ To Change Their Names At Ellis Island — It Was A ‘Strategy’ That ‘Paid Off Handsomely’

It turns out that it wasn’t the immigration officials at Ellis Island that allegedly changed the last names of Jews because of “antisemitism” — rather, it was the Jews themselves who did it voluntarily in order to “shape shift” — blending into the background until they became so successful that they could reassert their Jewish identities without repercussions, according to this Jewish writer in the Times Of Israel.

Christians For Thuth

Out of Control Black Violence: US Crime Data Estimates Show Murder Rate is at 25 Year High

According to estimates by the Times, homicides per 100,000 jumped from 5 in 2019 to 6.1 in 2020, a year-over-year record rise and the highest the murder rate has been since 1998. 

So far in 2021, homicides have risen further compared to 2020 by 10% to about 6.7 according to the paper. The streets of America are more dangerous today than they were in 1997 (6.5). At the same time, the US incarceration rate is at its lowest since 1995. 

Daily Archives

Metacognition

Thanks to Seax

Metacognition is an awareness of one’s own thought processes and an understanding of the patterns behind them. The term comes from the root word meta, meaning “beyond”, or “on top of”. Metacognition can take many forms, such as reflecting on one’s own ways of thinking and knowing when and how to use particular strategies for problem-solving. There are generally two components of metacognition: (1) knowledge about cognition and (2) regulation of cognition.

Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition. Academic research on metacognitive processing across cultures is in the early stages, but there are indications that further work may provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students.

Writings on metacognition date back at least as far as two works by the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC): On the Soul and the Parva Naturalia.

Read more at Wikipedia