Universal Robots

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Universal Robots is a Danish manufacturer of smaller flexible industrial collaborative robot arms (cobots), based in Odense, Denmark. The business volume in 2020 was USD 219 million. The company has 700+ employees (2020) and 1,100+ partners around the world.

History

Universal Robots was founded in 2005 by the engineers Esben Østergaard, Kasper Støy, and Kristian Kassow. During joint research at the Syddansk Universitet Odense, they came to the conclusion that the robotics market was dominated by heavy, expensive, and unwieldy robots. As a consequence they developed the idea to make robot technology accessible to small and medium-sized businesses. In 2008 the first UR5 cobots were available on the Danish and German market. In 2012 the second cobot, UR10, was launched. At Automatica 2014 in Munich the Company launched a totally revised version of its cobots. One year later, in spring 2015 the table-top cobot UR3 was launched. At Automatica 2018 in Munich a brand new generation of Universal Robots’ cobots called e-Series was launched raising the standard for collaborative robots. In September 2019, the company launched UR16e suited for high-payload tasks, like heavy material handling, heavy machine tending, packaging & palletising, and autonomous mobile robots (AMRs).

UR was purchased by Teradyne for US$285 million in 2015.

Products

The products consist of the table-top UR3 and UR3e, the UR5 and UR5e, the UR10 and UR10e, and the heavy-duty UR16e.

All robots are six-jointed robot arms with a very low weight including cable of respectively 11 kilos, 20 kilos, and 33 kilos. The UR3 and UR3e have a lifting ability of 3 kilos and a working radius of 500mm (19.7 in), the UR5 and UR5e have a lifting ability of 5 kilos and a working radius of 850mm (33.5 in), the UR10 and UR10e a lifting ability of 10 kilos and a working radius of 1300mm (51.2 in), and the UR16e a lifting ability of 16 kilos and a working radius of 900mm (35.4 in). The e-Series has a pose repeatability between ± 0.03mm and 0.05mm.

Universal Robots collaborative robots (cobots) can work right alongside personnel with no safety guarding, based on the results of a mandatory risk assessment.

The safety settings of the latest generation of Universal Robots’ lightweight cobots can be adjusted for each specific solution. The robot arm can run in two operating modes of the safety functions; a normal and a reduced one. A switch between safety settings during the cobot’s operation is also possible. All these safety functions are safety rated PL d (EN ISO 13849:2008 ) and certified by TÜV NORD.

UR’s cobots are used within both small to medium-sized businesses and large corporations within industries such as automotive, electronics, metal & machining, pharmaceuticals, and manufacturing.

In 2016, the company launched its online ecosystem Universal Robots+, and in early 2017 it launched a new online digital learning platform called Universal Robots Academy. Through this platform, users go through nine learning modules, learning how to program the UR collaborative robots.

In 2018, a brand new generation of Universal Robots’ cobots called e-Series was launched raising the standard for collaborative robots. The e-Series consist of four cobots: the UR3e, UR5e, UR10e, and finally the UR16e which was launched in 2019. In comparison to the previous generation, the CB Series, they have a higher accuracy for both position repeatability (± 0.03, ± 0.03 and ± 0.05 mm) and force (± 3.5, ± 4.0 and ± 5.5 N) and torque (± 0.10, ± 0.30 and ± 0.60 Nm), since they have a built-in Force/Torque sensor. With the e-Series, they also added a few more safety features, re-designed the teach pendant to be more intuitive and simplified the programming flow with more wizards.

Universal Robots – Wikipedia

TeradyneLogo.png

Teradyne, Inc. is an American automatic test equipment (ATE) designer and manufacturer based in North Reading, Massachusetts. Teradyne’s high-profile customers include SamsungQualcommIntelAnalog DevicesTexas Instruments and IBM.

Teradyne – Wikipedia

Inrotech Shipyard Welding robots (Made in Denmark)

skibsbygning | lex.dk – Den Store Danske

Danish Shipyards

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Søbygaard and Ærø

Søbygaard was built as a manor house around 1580 by Duke Hans the Younger.

The basement and individual walls in the living room are with original half-timbered and frescoes.

For many generations Søbygaard was owned by the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein.

A redevelopment in the late 1700s gave the main building the look seen now.

Today, Søbygaard is decorated as a museum.

Ærø (Danish pronunciation: [ˈeːˌʁøˀ]) is one of the Danish Baltic Sea islands, and part of the Southern Denmark Region.

Since 1 January 2006 the whole of Ærø has constituted a single municipality, known as Ærø Kommune. Before that date, there were two municipalities on the island: Ærøskøbing Kommune in the west and Marstal Kommune in the east. This merger was part of a reform of the public sector with the laws being effective as of 26 June 2005. This merger was allowed to happen one year before the other municipalities merged as there had already been an island-wide referendum with a majority of voters for the merger.

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Marstal, largest town on the island.

Geography

  • Population (in 2020): 5,956 (island of Ærø only); 5,964 (municipality).
  • Area: 88 km2 (island); 91 km2 (municipality)
  • Length of coastline: 167 km (104 mi)

Ærø measures roughly 20 km from northwest to southeast and varies in width from around 4 to 8 km. There are three small towns on the island in 2020: the largest is Marstal with a population of 2,111. Ærøskøbing has 942 inhabitants and Søby 438. Fourteen villages and a number of farms complete the island’s pattern of settlement.

Ærøskøbing, with its narrow lanes and picturesque 18th-century houses was historically Ærø’s chief town, and remains the primary port for ferry connections. Marstal, also known as the “skipper village”, from its being the home of so many sailors and captains, is the island’s largest town today and is its principal commercial and shopping centre.

The countryside is for the most part gently undulating, and there is a several-kilometre-long stretch of 33-metre-high cliffs at Voderup Klint on the west coast. With its generally low traffic density, Ærø is a popular destination for hikers and cyclists. The island’s beaches also attract anglers and artists. As one of the islands making up the South Funen Archipelago, Ærø is favoured by particularly fine weather. It enjoys a higher number of sunshine hours than the average for the rest of Denmark, and the year-round temperature is also a few degrees above the national average.

At Olde Mølle, at one of Ærø’s highest points and near the centre of the island, the sculptor Erik Brandt has created a “peace bench”, conceived with the intention of providing people with an opportunity to survey the island and its surrounding sea, whilst pondering on the theme of world peace.

In the town of Ærøskøbing.

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History

Archaeological excavations provide evidence of settlements going back to before 8000 BC. There are some burial mounds on the island, as well as an old Ting place. Relics of antiquity are found all over the island. Burial mounds, passage graves, and dolmens bear witness of human activity through more than 10,000 years.

As for its more recent history, the period of the duchies is of special interest. During this period — from the 14th century to the year 1864 – Ærø was united and separated, alternately, into a number of enclaves. Ærø was outside the tariff wall of the Kingdom, leading to flourishing smuggling which was a way of living for many of Ærø’s inhabitants.

In 1629 the main town of Ærøskøbing burnt down in a great fire. There was no other disaster of comparable scale. In 1750 the island, previously split into exclaves of numerous duchies, was united as single administrative district.

Until 1864, Ærø was part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig – the area of Schleswig/Southern Jutland is now divided between Denmark (Northern Schleswig) and Germany (Southern Schleswig). King Christian IV‘s cousin, also named Christian, was the Duke of Ærø from 1622 to 1633, and lived with his concubine Cathrine Griebels at Gråsten Manor House.

When the Duke died, a banner was found at Gråsten composed of nine pieces of cloth and in three colours – body colour, sea green, and golden yellow. This banner has provided the inspiration for the flag of Ærø which is seen today all over the island. When Duke Christian died, Ærø was distributed among four of his brothers, and this offers one explanation of why two towns developed in the island, Ærøskøbing and later on Marstal, and why each came to be in their own “country”.

Gråsten Manor House was abolished in 1766 and the buildings were demolished. The name of Gråsten is still alive today in the farmhouse that stands almost on the same spot as the ducal manor. Gråsten of today offers bed and breakfast accommodation.

In 1750, Ærø was united, and has not since been separated. This is marked by the memorial stone at Olde Mølle (English = Ancient mill). At the union, the old Code of Jutland from 1241 was applied and even today some of those rules are still valid.

In recent history, the preservation of the area’s local heritage has been paramount among residents. This passion for Ærø was demonstrated in 2000 when the Marstal Maritime School was ordered to close. More than 2,000 islanders (a third of the island) traveled to Copenhagen to protest the closing of the historic school. Ultimately, the government allowed the Maritime School to remain open.

Technology

Solar heating park, Marstal

Ærø has a large solar power plant, with an area of 18,365 m2. It provides a third of Marstal’s power consumption.

Ærø is endeavoring to become self-sufficient in energy, and in 2002 a figure of 40% self-sufficiency in renewable energy was reached. The initiatives have attracted high international recognition and Ærø is considered to be one of the world’s leaders in the field. As of January 2013, the solar plant covers an area of 33,300 m2 as a result of an extension under the Sunstone 4 project.

Ærø’s three district heating systems of solar collectors have won international acclaim. With the recent expansion, the system in Marstal is now the world’s largest solar collector system for heating.

In 2002, three modern wind turbines were erected. The wingtip of these turbines is 100 m (330 ft) above the ground and between them the mills cover 50% of the island’s electricity consumption.

28 January 2015 – The EU Horizon 2020 administration has confirmed that the 17 million € application for a demonstration E-ferry is now in the state of Grant Agreement – meaning that the partners in the Horizon application now have 3 months to finish contracting for the subsidies. The objective of the Green Ferry Vision is to perform a feasibility study for the design, production, and operation of an innovative low weight ferry for cars and passengers – a ferry only powered by green electricity stored on batteries on board. The ferry design will be well beyond state-of-the-art when it comes to charging powers and capable operating distance. E-ferry Ellen was built by Søby Værft and entered service in August 2019.

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E-ferry Ellen 2019

Transport

Ærø is the only island among the larger Danish Baltic Sea islands that is not connected with a bridge, and road traffic is generally low. There are car ferry lines to AlsFunen, until January 2013 M/F Marstal sailed between Marstal and Rudkøbing.

Ærø also lies within a popular sailboat area, the South Funen Archipelago.

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The small Ærø Airport with grassed runways is located near Marstal.

Notable residents

List of islands of Denmark

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Ærø – Wikipedia

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Vester Mølle (above and below).

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Skjoldnæs Fyr – Skjoldnæs Light House

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Ærøskøbing Apotek – Ærøskøbing Pharmacy 1784

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Rise Bryggeri, Ærøskøbing [Rise Brewery]

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Church of Ærøskøbing, Ærø, Denmark

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Bregninge Kirke, Ærø Kommune [Kirke = Church]

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Marstal Kirke

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Ommel Kirke, Ærø, Denmark

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Rise Kirke (Ærø Kommune)

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Søby Kirke (Ærø)

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Tranderup Church in Ærø Municipality, Denmark.

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Vitsø Nor

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Category: Ærø – Wikimedia Commons

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Ærøskøbing (Danish pronunciation: [ˈeːˌʁøˀsˌkʰøˀpe̝ŋ]) is a town in central Denmark, located in Ærø Municipality on the island of Ærø. The suffix –købing means a trade town in the languages that derive from Old Norse.

Ærøskøbing’s houses and streets are delicately restored to retain the character of the olden days. Most of them are one story tall, and the oldest ones date back to 1645.

In the old part of the town are many fine examples of the work of skilled bricklayers, carpenters, and blacksmiths. Behind the idyllic façade of the town is a live and active town that has solved successive generations’ housing needs for centuries.

Ærøskøbing was awarded the Europa Nostra prize in 2002. The prize is awarded by the EU as a special appreciation of looking after cultural heritage.

“Torvet” or town square in Ærøskøbing.

History

From about 1250 Ærøskøbing was the centre for the island’s commercial and maritime trade. A fire in 1629 destroyed a large number of houses, but after this the town experienced a renaissance. Old houses were rebuilt, but also new, larger houses were erected in styles owing much to traditions from Funen, northern Germany and the duchy of Schleswig, under which Ærø was incorporated until 1864, when Ærø was transferred to Denmark (de jure in 1867). The town as it is today illustrates a continuous building culture that has developed over several centuries.

Tourism

Ærøskøbing Church at the market square is the third church on that location and on the square are the two old town pumps that supplied the town with water right up until 1952.

The Prior’s house from 1690 is one of the town’s oldest dated buildings. It was purchased and restored in 1917 by Alexis Prior.

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Priors Hus [Hus = House]

The old harbour has been enlarged by a new marina and the beach at Vesterstrand with its colourful little beach huts is only a few minutes’ walk from the town and the harbour.

The cook house: Until the middle of the nineteenth century it was forbidden to cook over an open fire on a ship moored in the harbour. The danger of fire on wooden ships was simply too great and the town cook house was built to serve as the harbour cooking facility. The small, whitewashed building is from 1810. The Ærøskøbing Association helped with its restoration in 2001, and now again it serves its original purpose as a place where yachtsmen can prepare food.

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Kogehuset – Cook house, Harbour of Ærøskøbing, built 1810.

The town windmill (of Dutch origin from 1848) has become a landmark for the town, and is approached from the south by the main road.

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Old goods waggon in Ærøskøbing – Denmark

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Ærøskøbing Skole [Skole = School]

Ærøskøbing – Wikipedia

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The old Postcentral in Marstal.

Marstal (Danish pronunciation: [ˈmɑːstæl]) is a town in southern Denmark, located in Ærø municipality on the island of Ærø. Marstal has a population of 2,126 (1 January 2021) and is the largest town on Ærø. It was the municipal seat of the now abolished Marstal Municipality.

Marstal has a long maritime history. For centuries Marstal vessels have sailed the seven seas, and even today the town is the home port for a considerable number of coasters. Shipping is still the nerve of the town with its dockyards, its shipping companies and its maritime school which for more than a century has trained navigators for the Danish merchant fleet.

Marstal is the economic center of Ærø and the main industries are tourism, small industry and service.

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The town has an international reputation for shipbuilding.

Marstal is home to one of Northern Europe’s largest solar power complexes, using solar power to heat water for the local District heating.

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Marstal Søfartsmuseum – Marstal Maritime Museum.

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Church of Marstal

Built in 1738, – once in 1772 by adding an extension and later in 1920 with a tower to commemorate the reunification of southern Jutland with Denmark. Seven votive ships indicate the growth of shipping in the town from the 18th to the 20th century. The font dates from the Middle Ages, and the blue color of the benches symbolizes the sea and eternity, whereas the red colors of the altar and pulpit evoke the blood shed by Christ. Red is also the color of love. Carl Rasmussen, a maritime artist who usually specialized in the motifs of Greenland, painted the 1881 altarpiece, depicting Christ stilling a storm. In the old churchyard are memorials and tombstones honoring the sailors of Marstal who died at sea during two world wars.

History

Marstal is a shipping town founded in the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries its living depended predominantly on the building and sailing of wooden ships. In the harbour is a small island Frederiksøen, which today is called the Lime Kiln (Kalkovnen). The impressive fieldstone pier at the island was built in 1825 by local seamen on a voluntary basis. The island was in use as a repair yard for ships, until in 1863 it was rented out for lime burning.

The town did not grow around a square or a church, its houses were simply erected along the paths leading upwards from the jetties. As the town grew transverse ring-roads were added, and the narrowness of the settlement often meant that the houses were placed somewhat coincidentally.

The First World War put an end to optimism and changed the glorious maritime traditions of Marstal. 42 ships from Marstal were sunk at the loss of 53 seamen. The Second World War deprived the small naval community of 80 of its young boys and seamen.

Tourism

A traveler can arrive at Marstal via the ferry from Svendborg to Ærøskøbing and then driving from there. A ferry also exists from Fåborg to Søby on Northern Ærø.

The camping site, the youth hostel, and hotels provide accommodation for the many visitors.

Eriks Hale, a strip that jots into the sea south of the town, is home to a beach often used for swimming and bathing.

Marstal – Wikipedia

Beach hut on Eriks hale near Marstal (above).

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Søby is the northernmost town on Ærø with 428 inhabitants (2021). Like the rest of the island, it belongs to Ærø Municipality and is located in the Region of Southern Denmark. Søby is an active shipyard and fishing town with Søby Shipyard, commercial life, ferry operations and commercial port. There is a daily ferry service to Fynshav on Als and to Faaborg on Funen. Søby Parish was established in 1744.

From Søby it is almost 15 kilometers to Ærøskøbing and 23 kilometers to Marstal.

Søbygård.

1167 attacks the Wends [Slavic people, enemies of Germanic/White people to this day] time and time again southern Denmark. At that time, however, Ærø had good defenses such as Søby Volde 4 km southeast of Søby.

In 1277 Søby was first named Seboy. The foreword is the noun sæ, meaning lake. The after-stage is ‘-town’, which here means village. The estate Søby was mentioned as early as 1277 and was then in brandenburg possession. The main farm was at the end of the Middle Ages, but was restored by Duke Hans the Younger of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg.

The new manor Søbygård near Søby Volde [picture belove] was built in 1580 by Duke Hans den Yngre. The construction of Søbygård was the start of a central period of the island’s history characterized by small duchies. Søbygård was rarely used as a residence by the dukes.

In 1722 there were only a few fortifications, but after Søbygård was parcelled out, the settlement grew with sailors and fishermen.

During the Gunboat War (1807-1814), in 1812 the Beak, southeast of Skjoldnæs Lighthouse, was supplied with redoubts. These are now under erosion and have not changed the way the coast is located.

Related image

The Epic Gunboat War | VikingLifeBlog

The Gunboat War | VikingLifeBlog

In 1846, the harbour was only a primitive pole bridge, where the ferry between Als and Søby could dock. In 1865, the skippers jointly built a stone pier with bulwark. In 1903 Søby got a steamship connection with Faaborg. The harbour was further elaborated in 1924 and a ferry berth was built in 1933.

In 1948 Søby Bio opened on Biografvej. It ceased as a cinema in 1986. The summer of 1991 was tried again, but had to give up after a few performances. The cinema building was taken over by Trælasten, which ceased in 2015.

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In 2015, a demolition company removed the disused grain silo at Søby Harbour. It took about a month to remove the 30 meter high silo. For the sake of the neighbors, the silo was cut into small pieces.

In 1985, 10 pensioner homes were built at Nørrevejen.

Søby School was a central school from 1963 to 2013 and had about 100 students divided from kindergarten to sixth grade. The statue in front of the former school was carved in Bornholm granite by sculptor Eigil Vedel Schmidt and erected in 1965. The municipal council wanted a monument in front of the newly built school, which could symbolize the progress and development of the municipality, and Eigil Vedel’s proposal: “A pregnant woman with a small child”, was accepted. However, the artist conditioned that the statue should stand so low that the children could pat it.

Kunsthøjskolen on Ærø is a folk high school for contemporary art, located about 4 kilometers southeast of Søby and has painting studios, sculpture and media workshop, library and lecture hall and space for 30 students.

Søby Harbour is a fishing and industrial port with a shipyard in the west, fishing port and ferry port in the south-east as well as a marina in the east with room for 200 boats, In Søby harbour lies Ærø’s fishing fleet, consisting of smaller net boats and steel trawlers. The steel trawlers are only home part of the year. The port can receive ships with a maximum length of 135 meters and a draught of 6.5 meters.

Arthur Christian Jørgensen establishes a workshop in 1931 in Søby that specializes in repairing and improving smaller ship engines. Production of ship engines began in 1937 with 6 petrol and 4 crude oil engines, and the first slipway was inaugurated in 1941. Fishing boats are built from wood and about 30 men are employed. In 1959, the first steel trawler will be built. In 1967, the first dry dock was built. In 1991, a machine shop with warehouse and office was built and a 3500 m2 area to the northwest was reclaimed, on which a new large welding hall was built. On November 20, 2006, the new dry dock was 115 * 24 * 6 meters, which can take ships up to max. 7000 tonnes, put into service [was later extended to 140 meters]. Søby Shipyard, among other things, builds naval vessels for the Navy. The shipyard is the island’s largest workplace with about 140 employees.

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In addition to the yard, there are also a ship electronics company, forge shop, haulier’s shop, paint shop and bricklaying shop, furniture store, two hairdressers, campsite, inn, restaurant, bodega, bar, grill bar, bakery with café and a utility association.

In 2015, the former Søby School was sold and in September of that year 80 unaccompanied refugee children between the ages of 14 and 18 moved into the newly created asylum centre. In December 2016, the center closed and it was sold to a local builder. In the summer of 2016, he opened the “Town Hall Cellar” bar in the basement.

Søby (Ærø) – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi

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Ærø, Denmark

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Ærø

Søby Shipyard

Marstal Shipyard

Danish Shipyards

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Denmark

Danish Castles

Fortifications of Copenhagen

Kastellet and the Fortification Ring, Copenhagen, Denmark

Københavns Toldbod – Copenhagen Custom Tax Buildings

Københavns Frihavn – Copenhagen Freeport

The Little Mermaid

Rosenborg Castle

Christiansborg Slot – Christiansborg Castle

Christiansborg Bunker

Amalienborg Palace

Copenhagen City Hall

City Hall Square, Copenhagen

Frederiksberg Palace, Frederiksberg City Hall / Command Central

Charlottenborg Palace

Moltke’s Mansion

The Lur Blowers Monument

Dragon Fountain, Copenhagen

House of Architectural Heritage

Copenhagen 1960s

Copenhagen, Denmark

Winter in Denmark

Tuborgflasken

King of the hill: Elephants, elegance and 170 years of Carlsberg

Thor in battle with the ‘giants’

Christianshavn, København, Danmark

Holmen

Søtorvet

Retired crane becomes luxury-retreat

The Olsen Gang’s Big Score, The Dragon House & The Gefion Fountain

University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden

Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen

Christiansborg

Kronborg – Helsingør

Rosenborg Castle

Amalienborg Palace

Frederiksborg Castle

Fredensborg Palace

Charlottenlund Palace

Bernstorff Palace and Palace Gardens

Frederiksberg Palace, Frederiksberg City Hall / Command Central

Augustenborg Palace

Aalholm Slot

Vallø Slot

Hvedholm Slot

Tranekær Slot

Rosenholm Slot

Koldinghus

Gråsten Palace

Berritzgaard

Krenkerup Gods

Lykkesholm Slot

Skjoldenæsholm Slot

Herlufsholm

Sophienholm

Gyldensteen

Hørbygård

Rosengaard

Egholm

Arresødal

Skanderborg Slot

Charlottenborg Palace

Moltke’s Mansion

Copenhagen City Hall

Valdemar’s Castle, Egeskov and Svendborg

Kronborg Castle and Helsingør Shipyard

Sønderborg Castle and Sønderborg Shipyard

Korsør Shipyard and Fortress

More to come.

Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen

Ferdinand Meldahl

Heinrich Wenck

Vilhelm Dahlerup

Martin Nyrop

Hack Kampmann

Emil Blichfeldt

Hermann Baagøe Storck

Ulrik Plesner

Aage Langeland-Mathiesen

Martin Borch

Johan Daniel Herholdt

North Jutland shipyard suffers from supplier problems

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The problems of a Polish supplier can be seen in the accounts of the North Jutland shipyard Karstensen Group.

Admittedly, the yard made a nice profit of DKK 18.5 million after tax, but this is less than a third of what the profit was in 2017.

That’s what Nordjyske writes.

According to the management report behind the accounts, the problem lies with a Polish ship hull supplier who could not comply with agreements on deliveries, the newspaper writes.


To avoid similar problems, Karstensen Group has now chosen to invest in its own hull production in Poland.

In this way, the company expects to have the hull delivered on time in the future and thus be able to achieve a better result in the yard’s new building department.

Management expects a more positive financial year for 2019. Already the company has 16 new fishing vessels in the order book worth over 2.7 billion kroner.

In addition, the yard expects to be able to bring home some major repair work.

Metal Supply

Karstensens opens own hull yard in Poland

With the wish to become master of its own production, Karstensens Shipyard is now opening hull production in Poland.

As a result of the ambition to be a leading total supplier of larger fishing vessels, Karstensens Shipyard is now setting up Karstensen Shipyard Poland.

Karstensens Skibsværft lander endnu en stor trawler-ordre - Metal Supply DK

The facilities consist of two well-equipped and modern building halls in size 200 x 30 x 30 meters with associated offices and modern crew facilities.

By becoming even more independent of external parties, the yard expects to continue to develop and continue to set the standard for the new construction of modern fishing vessels.

Soefart

Karstensens Skibsværft fordobler sit overskud

Karstensens Shipyard, Skagen

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Karstensens Shipyard, Greenland (also Denmark)

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Business Minister will explore possible protectionism against Danish shipyards

Danish Shipyards

North Korean forced labourers had contracted to build Danish inspection ship in Poland

Eastern Europe is our Mexico!

Kronborg – Helsingør

Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of HelsingørDenmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeare‘s play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has been added to UNESCO‘s World Heritage Sites list (2000).

The castle is situated on the extreme northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between present Denmark and the provinces of present Sweden that were also Danish at the time the castle was built. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide, hence the strategic importance of maintaining a coastal fortification at this location commanding one of the few outlets of the Baltic Sea.

The castle’s story dates back to a stronghold, Krogen, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress KärnanHelsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, it controlled the entranceway to the Baltic Sea. From 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, whereas the sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. In 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle also has a church within its walls. In 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty. In 1785 the castle ceased to be a royal residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a thorough renovation it was opened to the public.

Kronborg 002.JPG

The castle’s story dates back to a fortress, Krogen (lit. “the Hook”), built in the 1420s by the Danish kingEric of Pomerania. The king insisted on the payment of sound dues by all ships wishing to enter or leave the Baltic Sea passing through the Sound; to help enforce his demands, he built a powerful fortress at the narrowest point in the Sound. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the eastern shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to control all navigation through the Sound.

The castle was built on Ørekrog, a sandy tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a square curtain wallwith a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the king’s residence. The building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel. Large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.

King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59.

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Frederick II’s Kronborg 

Kronborg Castle and the Øresund from the 1580s geography book Civitates Orbis Terrarum

From 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe.

As a consequence of developments in the military technique of the era and the improved striking power of the artillery, it became clear that it was necessary to modernize the fortifications of Krogen. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years’ War in 1570, King Frederick II initiated an extension of the advanced bastions to relieve the medieval curtain wall. The main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschenand the fortification works were completed in 1577. After this the castle acquired its current name of Kronborg (lit. “Crown Castle”).

Also the castle itself was rebuilt, with the separated buildings of Krogen being extended to three coherent wings. The north wing was equipped with chambers for the king, queen and her ladies-in-waiting as well as for the chancellery. In the south wing, the medieval building in the southeast corner was refitted as a modern chapel with the vaulted windows facing the chapel being retained.

Initially, the castle was reconstructed only to a height of two storeys. In 1578, however, the Flemish architect Anthonis van Obbergen was engaged as new master builder and work was undertaken to make Kronborg even larger and more magnificent. The sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. As a sign of the new ambitions, the south wing was heightened by one storey and a new, gigantic ball room placed over the chapel. Soon after the west and north wings were also heigtened by one storey. Finally, the east wing was also heightened with a passageway, The Queen’s Gallery, allowing the Queen comfortable passage from her chambers in the north wing to the ball room in the south wing.

The exterior walls were clad with sandstone from Scania, and the new castle was given a roof with copper sheeting.

Frederick was a keen patron of theatre and players performed at the castle when he held court there in 1579.

Fire of 1629 

Arrival of a Dutch three-master at Kronborg Castle, by Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom.

In 1629, a moment’s carelessness by two workmen caused much of the castle to go up in flames in the night between the 24 and 25 September. Only the Chapel was spared by the strength of its arches. King Christian IV put great efforts into restoring the castle. Already in 1631, the work was underway, led by the architect Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger. By 1639 the exterior — which in keeping with the king’s wish was reconstructed without major changes — was once again magnificent, but the interior never fully regained its former glory. Furthermore, certain modernizations were made, and portals, chimneypieces, ceiling paintings and other decorations were renewed in Baroque style.

Swedish conquest of 1658 

The siege of Kronborg in 1658

During the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–60, Kronborg was besieged, attacked and conquered by a Swedish army, commanded by Carl Gustaf Wrangel.

During the Swedish occupation, the queen of Sweden, Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp and the Swedish king’s sister Maria Eufrosyne of Pfalz lived at Kronborg, where they were visited by Charles X of Sweden during the campaign and entertained the foreign ambassadors.

As a result of the Swedish occupation, Kronborg was deprived of many of its most precious art works, including the richly decorated fountain in the castle courtyard, Frederick II’s canopy and a number of the large ceiling paintings commissioned by Christian IV for the ballroom.

Garrison fortress 

Military barracks on the outskirts of the castle

The Swedish conquest of Kronborg in 1658 demonstrated that the castle was far from impregnable. Afterwards, the defences were strengthened significantly. From 1688-90, an advanced line of defence was added called the Crownwork. Shortly afterwards, a new series of ramparts were built around it. After their completion, Kronborg was considered the strongest fortress in Europe.

From 1739 until the 1900s, Kronborg was used as a prison. The inmates were guarded by the soldiers billeted in the castle. The convicts had been sentenced to work on the castle’s fortifications. The convicts were divided into two categories: those with minor sentences were categorised as “honest” and were allowed to work outside the castle walls; those serving sentences for violence, murder, arson or the like were categorised as “dishonest” and had to serve the full sentence doing hard physical labour inside the castle ramparts. Otherwise, they served their time under the same conditions: they all had to wear chains and spend nights in cold and damp dungeons.

Kronborg Castle

From January 17, 1772 to April 30, 1772, Kronborg was the place of imprisonment of Queen Caroline Mathilde (Princess Caroline Matilda of Great Britain), sister of George III, following the scandal of her affair with Johann Friedrich Struensee.

As Kronborg’s importance as a royal castle diminished, the armed forces came to play a greater role. From 1785 to 1922, the castle was completely under military administration. During this period, a number of renovations were completed.

Sound Due and recent history 

The captain of every ship sailing through the strait had to state the value of ship’s cargo. Money that had to be paid to the King of Denmark was then calculated depending on the value of the cargo. The king had the right to buy the cargo for the price the ship’s captain stated. This policy prevented captains from stating prices that were too low. The Sound Dues were abolished in 1857.

The army left the castle in 1923, and after a thorough renovation it was opened to the public in 1938.

Description 

Kronborg Castle is located on the extreme northeastern tip of the island of Zealand, to the northeast of the historic centre of the town of Helsingør. It is situated at an elevation of 12 meters, on a small foreland jutting out into the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between the Danish island of Zealand and the Swedish province of Scania, that was also Danish until 1658. The approach from the town is to the east, with a series of moats and gates protecting the route from the town to the castle itself.

Royal apartments 

The King’s Chamber

One of the ceiling paintings in the King’s Chamber showing putti carrying Christian IV’s crowned monogram

The royal apartments are located on the first floor of the north wing. The apartments were originally furnished by Frederick II around 1576, but after the fire in 1629, Christian IV had the apartments refurnished and richly decorated with ceiling paintings, stone portals and chimneypieces. The original floors were tiled in black and white which were replaced with wooden floorboards in 1760-61, and the walls were clad in gilt-leather. Today the chambers are furnished with Netherlandish furniture from the 17th century.

The King’s Chamber has a bay window, located right above the castle’s main portal, from which the king could keep an eye on guests arriving at the castle, whereas the Queen’s Chamber has access to a vaulted tower chamber overlooking the Flag Bastion.

Ballroom 

The Great Ballroom

Measuring 62 x 12 metres, the Ballroom was the largest hall in Northern Europe when it was completed in 1582. The walls are hung with a series of large paintings which were originally made from 1618 to 1631 for the Great Hall of Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. The paintings in the Ballroom include:

The present floor and the fireplaces are from the rebuilding in 1924-38.

Little Hall 

The Little Hall with five of the seven tapestries

The walls of the Little Hall are furnished with seven tapestries originally from a series of forty tapestries portraying one hundred Danish kings. The masterpieces include Tapestry depicting Oluf (1376-1387) and Tapestry depicting Knud VI (1182-1202). The tapestries were commissioned by Frederick II around 1580. Seven more tapestries are at the National Museum of Denmark, while the rest have been lost.

Chapel 

The Chapel

The chapel is located in the ground floor of the south wing and was inaugurated in 1582. In 1785, as the castle was being fitted for use as army barracks, the chapel was fitted out as a gymnasium and fencing hall and the furniture stored away. The chapel was refurnished with the original furniture in 1838 and reinaugurated in 1843.

Cultural significance 

Hamlet 

Kronborg is known to many as “Elsinore,” the setting of William Shakespeare‘s famous tragedy Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, though “Elsinore” is actually the anglicized name of the surrounding town of HelsingørHamlet was performed in the castle for the first time to mark the 200th anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare, with a cast consisting of soldiers from the castle garrison. The stage was in the telegraph tower in the southwest corner of the castle. The play has since been performed several times in the courtyard and at various locations on the fortifications. Later performers to play Hamlet at the castle included Laurence OlivierJohn GielgudChristopher PlummerDerek JacobiDavid Tennant, and in 2009 Jude Law.

Holger the Dane 

Statue of Holger in Kronborg castle

According to a legend linked to Arthurian myth, a Danish king known as Holger the Dane, was taken to Avalon by Morgan le Fay. He returned to rescue France from danger, then traveled to Kronborg castle, where he sleeps until he is needed to save his homeland. His beard has grown to extend along the ground. A statue of the sleeping Holger has been placed in the castle.

In the Danish tongue he is called Holger Danske.

Other 

The cast setting of the televised holiday series Jul på Kronborg (English: Christmas at Kronborg), which featured both Hamlet and Holger the Dane.

‘Elsinore Beer’ is named for the castle and shown in the beer label logo in the 1983 comedy Strange Brew, starring Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas.

Performance at Kronborg 

in 2017 Hamletscenen presented a production of William Shakespeare‘s Hamlet at Kronborg castle, directed by Lars Romann Engel. The role of Hamlet was played by Cyron Melville and Ophelia by Natalie Madueño. Music for the production was composed by Mike Sheridan.

Culture Harbour Kronborg 

Kulturhavn Kronborg is an initiative of 2013 to offer a variety of culture experiences to residents and visitors to HelsingørKulturhavn Kronborg is a joint initiative by Kronborg CastleDanish Maritime MuseumKulturværftet and Helsingør harbour.

Source

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The pictures belong to Brian

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Royal Denship

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