Universal Robots is a Danish manufacturer of smaller flexible industrial collaborative robot arms (cobots), based in Odense, Denmark. The business volume in 2020 was USD 219 million. The company has 700+ employees (2020) and 1,100+ partners around the world.
Universal Robots was founded in 2005 by the engineers Esben Østergaard, Kasper Støy, and Kristian Kassow. During joint research at the Syddansk Universitet Odense, they came to the conclusion that the robotics market was dominated by heavy, expensive, and unwieldy robots. As a consequence they developed the idea to make robot technology accessible to small and medium-sized businesses. In 2008 the first UR5 cobots were available on the Danish and German market. In 2012 the second cobot, UR10, was launched. At Automatica 2014 in Munich the Company launched a totally revised version of its cobots. One year later, in spring 2015 the table-top cobot UR3 was launched. At Automatica 2018 in Munich a brand new generation of Universal Robots’ cobots called e-Series was launched raising the standard for collaborative robots. In September 2019, the company launched UR16e suited for high-payload tasks, like heavy material handling, heavy machine tending, packaging & palletising, and autonomous mobile robots (AMRs).
UR was purchased by Teradyne for US$285 million in 2015.
The products consist of the table-top UR3 and UR3e, the UR5 and UR5e, the UR10 and UR10e, and the heavy-duty UR16e.
All robots are six-jointed robot arms with a very low weight including cable of respectively 11 kilos, 20 kilos, and 33 kilos. The UR3 and UR3e have a lifting ability of 3 kilos and a working radius of 500mm (19.7 in), the UR5 and UR5e have a lifting ability of 5 kilos and a working radius of 850mm (33.5 in), the UR10 and UR10e a lifting ability of 10 kilos and a working radius of 1300mm (51.2 in), and the UR16e a lifting ability of 16 kilos and a working radius of 900mm (35.4 in). The e-Series has a pose repeatability between ± 0.03mm and 0.05mm.
Universal Robots collaborative robots (cobots) can work right alongside personnel with no safety guarding, based on the results of a mandatory risk assessment.
The safety settings of the latest generation of Universal Robots’ lightweight cobots can be adjusted for each specific solution. The robot arm can run in two operating modes of the safety functions; a normal and a reduced one. A switch between safety settings during the cobot’s operation is also possible. All these safety functions are safety rated PL d (EN ISO 13849:2008 ) and certified by TÜV NORD.
UR’s cobots are used within both small to medium-sized businesses and large corporations within industries such as automotive, electronics, metal & machining, pharmaceuticals, and manufacturing.
In 2016, the company launched its online ecosystem Universal Robots+, and in early 2017 it launched a new online digital learning platform called Universal Robots Academy. Through this platform, users go through nine learning modules, learning how to program the UR collaborative robots.
In 2018, a brand new generation of Universal Robots’ cobots called e-Series was launched raising the standard for collaborative robots. The e-Series consist of four cobots: the UR3e, UR5e, UR10e, and finally the UR16e which was launched in 2019. In comparison to the previous generation, the CB Series, they have a higher accuracy for both position repeatability (± 0.03, ± 0.03 and ± 0.05 mm) and force (± 3.5, ± 4.0 and ± 5.5 N) and torque (± 0.10, ± 0.30 and ± 0.60 Nm), since they have a built-in Force/Torque sensor. With the e-Series, they also added a few more safety features, re-designed the teach pendant to be more intuitive and simplified the programming flow with more wizards.
Since 1 January 2006 the whole of Ærø has constituted a single municipality, known as Ærø Kommune. Before that date, there were two municipalities on the island: Ærøskøbing Kommune in the west and Marstal Kommune in the east. This merger was part of a reform of the public sector with the laws being effective as of 26 June 2005. This merger was allowed to happen one year before the other municipalities merged as there had already been an island-wide referendum with a majority of voters for the merger.
Population (in 2020): 5,956 (island of Ærø only); 5,964 (municipality).
Area: 88 km2 (island); 91 km2 (municipality)
Length of coastline: 167 km (104 mi)
Ærø measures roughly 20 km from northwest to southeast and varies in width from around 4 to 8 km. There are three small towns on the island in 2020: the largest is Marstal with a population of 2,111. Ærøskøbing has 942 inhabitants and Søby 438. Fourteen villages and a number of farms complete the island’s pattern of settlement.
Ærøskøbing, with its narrow lanes and picturesque 18th-century houses was historically Ærø’s chief town, and remains the primary port for ferry connections. Marstal, also known as the “skipper village”, from its being the home of so many sailors and captains, is the island’s largest town today and is its principal commercial and shopping centre.
The countryside is for the most part gently undulating, and there is a several-kilometre-long stretch of 33-metre-high cliffs at Voderup Klint on the west coast. With its generally low traffic density, Ærø is a popular destination for hikers and cyclists. The island’s beaches also attract anglers and artists. As one of the islands making up the South Funen Archipelago, Ærø is favoured by particularly fine weather. It enjoys a higher number of sunshine hours than the average for the rest of Denmark, and the year-round temperature is also a few degrees above the national average.
At Olde Mølle, at one of Ærø’s highest points and near the centre of the island, the sculptorErik Brandt has created a “peace bench”, conceived with the intention of providing people with an opportunity to survey the island and its surrounding sea, whilst pondering on the theme of world peace.
In the town of Ærøskøbing.
Archaeological excavations provide evidence of settlements going back to before 8000 BC. There are some burial mounds on the island, as well as an old Ting place. Relics of antiquity are found all over the island. Burial mounds, passage graves, and dolmens bear witness of human activity through more than 10,000 years.
As for its more recent history, the period of the duchies is of special interest. During this period — from the 14th century to the year 1864 – Ærø was united and separated, alternately, into a number of enclaves. Ærø was outside the tariff wall of the Kingdom, leading to flourishing smuggling which was a way of living for many of Ærø’s inhabitants.
In 1629 the main town of Ærøskøbing burnt down in a great fire. There was no other disaster of comparable scale. In 1750 the island, previously split into exclaves of numerous duchies, was united as single administrative district.
Until 1864, Ærø was part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig – the area of Schleswig/Southern Jutland is now divided between Denmark (Northern Schleswig) and Germany (Southern Schleswig). King Christian IV‘s cousin, also named Christian, was the Duke of Ærø from 1622 to 1633, and lived with his concubine Cathrine Griebels at Gråsten Manor House.
When the Duke died, a banner was found at Gråsten composed of nine pieces of cloth and in three colours – body colour, sea green, and golden yellow. This banner has provided the inspiration for the flag of Ærø which is seen today all over the island. When Duke Christian died, Ærø was distributed among four of his brothers, and this offers one explanation of why two towns developed in the island, Ærøskøbing and later on Marstal, and why each came to be in their own “country”.
Gråsten Manor House was abolished in 1766 and the buildings were demolished. The name of Gråsten is still alive today in the farmhouse that stands almost on the same spot as the ducal manor. Gråsten of today offers bed and breakfast accommodation.
In 1750, Ærø was united, and has not since been separated. This is marked by the memorial stone at Olde Mølle (English = Ancient mill). At the union, the old Code of Jutland from 1241 was applied and even today some of those rules are still valid.
In recent history, the preservation of the area’s local heritage has been paramount among residents. This passion for Ærø was demonstrated in 2000 when the Marstal Maritime School was ordered to close. More than 2,000 islanders (a third of the island) traveled to Copenhagen to protest the closing of the historic school. Ultimately, the government allowed the Maritime School to remain open.
Solar heating park, Marstal
Ærø has a large solar power plant, with an area of 18,365 m2. It provides a third of Marstal’s power consumption.
Ærø is endeavoring to become self-sufficient in energy, and in 2002 a figure of 40% self-sufficiency in renewable energy was reached. The initiatives have attracted high international recognition and Ærø is considered to be one of the world’s leaders in the field. As of January 2013, the solar plant covers an area of 33,300 m2 as a result of an extension under the Sunstone 4 project.
Ærø’s three district heating systems of solar collectors have won international acclaim. With the recent expansion, the system in Marstal is now the world’s largest solar collector system for heating.
In 2002, three modern wind turbines were erected. The wingtip of these turbines is 100 m (330 ft) above the ground and between them the mills cover 50% of the island’s electricity consumption.
28 January 2015 – The EU Horizon 2020 administration has confirmed that the 17 million € application for a demonstration E-ferry is now in the state of Grant Agreement – meaning that the partners in the Horizon application now have 3 months to finish contracting for the subsidies. The objective of the Green Ferry Vision is to perform a feasibility study for the design, production, and operation of an innovative low weight ferry for cars and passengers – a ferry only powered by green electricity stored on batteries on board. The ferry design will be well beyond state-of-the-art when it comes to charging powers and capable operating distance. E-ferry Ellen was built by Søby Værft and entered service in August 2019.
Ærø is the only island among the larger Danish Baltic Sea islands that is not connected with a bridge, and road traffic is generally low. There are car ferry lines to Als, Funen, until January 2013 M/F Marstal sailed between Marstal and Rudkøbing.
Ærøskøbing’s houses and streets are delicately restored to retain the character of the olden days. Most of them are one story tall, and the oldest ones date back to 1645.
In the old part of the town are many fine examples of the work of skilled bricklayers, carpenters, and blacksmiths. Behind the idyllic façade of the town is a live and active town that has solved successive generations’ housing needs for centuries.
Ærøskøbing was awarded the Europa Nostra prize in 2002. The prize is awarded by the EU as a special appreciation of looking after cultural heritage.
“Torvet” or town square in Ærøskøbing.
From about 1250 Ærøskøbing was the centre for the island’s commercial and maritime trade. A fire in 1629 destroyed a large number of houses, but after this the town experienced a renaissance. Old houses were rebuilt, but also new, larger houses were erected in styles owing much to traditions from Funen, northern Germany and the duchy of Schleswig, under which Ærø was incorporated until 1864, when Ærø was transferred to Denmark (de jure in 1867). The town as it is today illustrates a continuous building culture that has developed over several centuries.
Ærøskøbing Church at the market square is the third church on that location and on the square are the two old town pumps that supplied the town with water right up until 1952.
The Prior’s house from 1690 is one of the town’s oldest dated buildings. It was purchased and restored in 1917 by Alexis Prior.
Priors Hus [Hus = House]
The old harbour has been enlarged by a new marina and the beach at Vesterstrand with its colourful little beach huts is only a few minutes’ walk from the town and the harbour.
The cook house: Until the middle of the nineteenth century it was forbidden to cook over an open fire on a ship moored in the harbour. The danger of fire on wooden ships was simply too great and the town cook house was built to serve as the harbour cooking facility. The small, whitewashed building is from 1810. The Ærøskøbing Association helped with its restoration in 2001, and now again it serves its original purpose as a place where yachtsmen can prepare food.
Kogehuset – Cook house, Harbour of Ærøskøbing, built 1810.
The town windmill (of Dutch origin from 1848) has become a landmark for the town, and is approached from the south by the main road.
Marstal has a long maritime history. For centuries Marstal vessels have sailed the seven seas, and even today the town is the home port for a considerable number of coasters. Shipping is still the nerve of the town with its dockyards, its shipping companies and its maritime school which for more than a century has trained navigators for the Danish merchant fleet.
Marstal is the economic center of Ærø and the main industries are tourism, small industry and service.
The town has an international reputation for shipbuilding.
Marstal is home to one of Northern Europe’s largest solar power complexes, using solar power to heat water for the local District heating.
Marstal Søfartsmuseum – Marstal Maritime Museum.
Church of Marstal
Built in 1738, – once in 1772 by adding an extension and later in 1920 with a tower to commemorate the reunification of southern Jutland with Denmark. Seven votive ships indicate the growth of shipping in the town from the 18th to the 20th century. The font dates from the Middle Ages, and the blue color of the benches symbolizes the sea and eternity, whereas the red colors of the altar and pulpit evoke the blood shed by Christ. Red is also the color of love. Carl Rasmussen, a maritime artist who usually specialized in the motifs of Greenland, painted the 1881 altarpiece, depicting Christ stilling a storm. In the old churchyard are memorials and tombstones honoring the sailors of Marstal who died at sea during two world wars.
Marstal is a shipping town founded in the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries its living depended predominantly on the building and sailing of wooden ships. In the harbour is a small island Frederiksøen, which today is called the Lime Kiln (Kalkovnen). The impressive fieldstone pier at the island was built in 1825 by local seamen on a voluntary basis. The island was in use as a repair yard for ships, until in 1863 it was rented out for lime burning.
The town did not grow around a square or a church, its houses were simply erected along the paths leading upwards from the jetties. As the town grew transverse ring-roads were added, and the narrowness of the settlement often meant that the houses were placed somewhat coincidentally.
The First World War put an end to optimism and changed the glorious maritime traditions of Marstal. 42 ships from Marstal were sunk at the loss of 53 seamen. The Second World War deprived the small naval community of 80 of its young boys and seamen.
A traveler can arrive at Marstal via the ferry from Svendborg to Ærøskøbing and then driving from there. A ferry also exists from Fåborg to Søby on Northern Ærø.
The camping site, the youth hostel, and hotels provide accommodation for the many visitors.
Eriks Hale, a strip that jots into the sea south of the town, is home to a beach often used for swimming and bathing.
Søby is the northernmost town on Ærø with 428 inhabitants (2021). Like the rest of the island, it belongs to Ærø Municipality and is located in the Region of Southern Denmark. Søby is an active shipyard and fishing town with Søby Shipyard, commercial life, ferry operations and commercial port. There is a daily ferry service to Fynshav on Als and to Faaborg on Funen. Søby Parish was established in 1744.
From Søby it is almost 15 kilometers to Ærøskøbing and 23 kilometers to Marstal.
1167 attacks the Wends [Slavic people, enemies of Germanic/White people to this day] time and time again southern Denmark. At that time, however, Ærø had good defenses such as Søby Volde 4 km southeast of Søby.
In 1277 Søby was first named Seboy. The foreword is the noun sæ, meaning lake. The after-stage is ‘-town’, which here means village. The estate Søby was mentioned as early as 1277 and was then in brandenburg possession. The main farm was at the end of the Middle Ages, but was restored by Duke Hans the Younger of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg.
The new manor Søbygård near Søby Volde [picture belove] was built in 1580 by Duke Hans den Yngre. The construction of Søbygård was the start of a central period of the island’s history characterized by small duchies. Søbygård was rarely used as a residence by the dukes.
In 1722 there were only a few fortifications, but after Søbygård was parcelled out, the settlement grew with sailors and fishermen.
During the Gunboat War (1807-1814), in 1812 the Beak, southeast of Skjoldnæs Lighthouse, was supplied with redoubts. These are now under erosion and have not changed the way the coast is located.
In 1846, the harbour was only a primitive pole bridge, where the ferry between Als and Søby could dock. In 1865, the skippers jointly built a stone pier with bulwark. In 1903 Søby got a steamship connection with Faaborg. The harbour was further elaborated in 1924 and a ferry berth was built in 1933.
In 1948 Søby Bio opened on Biografvej. It ceased as a cinema in 1986. The summer of 1991 was tried again, but had to give up after a few performances. The cinema building was taken over by Trælasten, which ceased in 2015.
In 2015, a demolition company removed the disused grain silo at Søby Harbour. It took about a month to remove the 30 meter high silo. For the sake of the neighbors, the silo was cut into small pieces.
In 1985, 10 pensioner homes were built at Nørrevejen.
Søby School was a central school from 1963 to 2013 and had about 100 students divided from kindergarten to sixth grade. The statue in front of the former school was carved in Bornholm granite by sculptor Eigil Vedel Schmidt and erected in 1965. The municipal council wanted a monument in front of the newly built school, which could symbolize the progress and development of the municipality, and Eigil Vedel’s proposal: “A pregnant woman with a small child”, was accepted. However, the artist conditioned that the statue should stand so low that the children could pat it.
Kunsthøjskolen on Ærø is a folk high school for contemporary art, located about 4 kilometers southeast of Søby and has painting studios, sculpture and media workshop, library and lecture hall and space for 30 students.
Søby Harbour is a fishing and industrial port with a shipyard in the west, fishing port and ferry port in the south-east as well as a marina in the east with room for 200 boats, In Søby harbour lies Ærø’s fishing fleet, consisting of smaller net boats and steel trawlers. The steel trawlers are only home part of the year. The port can receive ships with a maximum length of 135 meters and a draught of 6.5 meters.
Arthur Christian Jørgensen establishes a workshop in 1931 in Søby that specializes in repairing and improving smaller ship engines. Production of ship engines began in 1937 with 6 petrol and 4 crude oil engines, and the first slipway was inaugurated in 1941. Fishing boats are built from wood and about 30 men are employed. In 1959, the first steel trawler will be built. In 1967, the first dry dock was built. In 1991, a machine shop with warehouse and office was built and a 3500 m2 area to the northwest was reclaimed, on which a new large welding hall was built. On November 20, 2006, the new dry dock was 115 * 24 * 6 meters, which can take ships up to max. 7000 tonnes, put into service [was later extended to 140 meters]. Søby Shipyard, among other things, builds naval vessels for the Navy. The shipyard is the island’s largest workplace with about 140 employees.
In addition to the yard, there are also a ship electronics company, forge shop, haulier’s shop, paint shop and bricklaying shop, furniture store, two hairdressers, campsite, inn, restaurant, bodega, bar, grill bar, bakery with café and a utility association.
In 2015, the former Søby School was sold and in September of that year 80 unaccompanied refugee children between the ages of 14 and 18 moved into the newly created asylum centre. In December 2016, the center closed and it was sold to a local builder. In the summer of 2016, he opened the “Town Hall Cellar” bar in the basement.
The castle is situated on the extreme northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between present Denmark and the provinces of present Sweden that were also Danish at the time the castle was built. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide, hence the strategic importance of maintaining a coastal fortification at this location commanding one of the few outlets of the Baltic Sea.
The castle’s story dates back to a stronghold, Krogen, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, it controlled the entranceway to the Baltic Sea. From 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the FlemingsHans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, whereas the sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. In 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle also has a church within its walls. In 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty. In 1785 the castle ceased to be a royal residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a thorough renovation it was opened to the public.
The castle’s story dates back to a fortress, Krogen (lit. “the Hook”), built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. The king insisted on the payment of sound dues by all ships wishing to enter or leave the Baltic Sea passing through the Sound; to help enforce his demands, he built a powerful fortress at the narrowest point in the Sound. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the eastern shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to control all navigation through the Sound.
The castle was built on Ørekrog, a sandy tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a square curtain wallwith a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the king’s residence. The building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel. Large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
From 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe.
As a consequence of developments in the military technique of the era and the improved striking power of the artillery, it became clear that it was necessary to modernize the fortifications of Krogen. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years’ War in 1570, King Frederick II initiated an extension of the advanced bastions to relieve the medieval curtain wall. The main architect was the FlemisharchitectHans Hendrik van Paesschenand the fortification works were completed in 1577. After this the castle acquired its current name of Kronborg (lit. “Crown Castle”).
Also the castle itself was rebuilt, with the separated buildings of Krogen being extended to three coherent wings. The north wing was equipped with chambers for the king, queen and her ladies-in-waiting as well as for the chancellery. In the south wing, the medieval building in the southeast corner was refitted as a modern chapel with the vaulted windows facing the chapel being retained.
Initially, the castle was reconstructed only to a height of two storeys. In 1578, however, the FlemisharchitectAnthonis van Obbergen was engaged as new master builder and work was undertaken to make Kronborg even larger and more magnificent. The sculptural work was coordinated by Gert van Groningen. As a sign of the new ambitions, the south wing was heightened by one storey and a new, gigantic ball room placed over the chapel. Soon after the west and north wings were also heigtened by one storey. Finally, the east wing was also heightened with a passageway, The Queen’s Gallery, allowing the Queen comfortable passage from her chambers in the north wing to the ball room in the south wing.
The exterior walls were clad with sandstone from Scania, and the new castle was given a roof with copper sheeting.
Frederick was a keen patron of theatre and players performed at the castle when he held court there in 1579.
In 1629, a moment’s carelessness by two workmen caused much of the castle to go up in flames in the night between the 24 and 25 September. Only the Chapel was spared by the strength of its arches. King Christian IV put great efforts into restoring the castle. Already in 1631, the work was underway, led by the architectHans van Steenwinckel the Younger. By 1639 the exterior — which in keeping with the king’s wish was reconstructed without major changes — was once again magnificent, but the interior never fully regained its former glory. Furthermore, certain modernizations were made, and portals, chimneypieces, ceiling paintings and other decorations were renewed in Baroque style.
As a result of the Swedish occupation, Kronborg was deprived of many of its most precious art works, including the richly decorated fountain in the castle courtyard, Frederick II’s canopy and a number of the large ceiling paintings commissioned by Christian IV for the ballroom.
Military barracks on the outskirts of the castle
The Swedish conquest of Kronborg in 1658 demonstrated that the castle was far from impregnable. Afterwards, the defences were strengthened significantly. From 1688-90, an advanced line of defence was added called the Crownwork. Shortly afterwards, a new series of ramparts were built around it. After their completion, Kronborg was considered the strongest fortress in Europe.
From 1739 until the 1900s, Kronborg was used as a prison. The inmates were guarded by the soldiers billeted in the castle. The convicts had been sentenced to work on the castle’s fortifications. The convicts were divided into two categories: those with minor sentences were categorised as “honest” and were allowed to work outside the castle walls; those serving sentences for violence, murder, arson or the like were categorised as “dishonest” and had to serve the full sentence doing hard physical labour inside the castle ramparts. Otherwise, they served their time under the same conditions: they all had to wear chains and spend nights in cold and damp dungeons.
As Kronborg’s importance as a royal castle diminished, the armed forces came to play a greater role. From 1785 to 1922, the castle was completely under military administration. During this period, a number of renovations were completed.
Sound Due and recent history
The captain of every ship sailing through the strait had to state the value of ship’s cargo. Money that had to be paid to the King of Denmark was then calculated depending on the value of the cargo. The king had the right to buy the cargo for the price the ship’s captain stated. This policy prevented captains from stating prices that were too low. The Sound Dues were abolished in 1857.
The army left the castle in 1923, and after a thorough renovation it was opened to the public in 1938.
Kronborg Castle is located on the extreme northeastern tip of the island of Zealand, to the northeast of the historic centre of the town of Helsingør. It is situated at an elevation of 12 meters, on a small foreland jutting out into the narrowest point of the Øresund, the sound between the Danish island of Zealand and the Swedishprovince of Scania, that was also Danish until 1658. The approach from the town is to the east, with a series of moats and gates protecting the route from the town to the castle itself.
The King’s Chamber
One of the ceiling paintings in the King’s Chamber showing putti carrying Christian IV’s crowned monogram
The royal apartments are located on the first floor of the north wing. The apartments were originally furnished by Frederick II around 1576, but after the fire in 1629, Christian IV had the apartments refurnished and richly decorated with ceiling paintings, stone portals and chimneypieces. The original floors were tiled in black and white which were replaced with wooden floorboards in 1760-61, and the walls were clad in gilt-leather. Today the chambers are furnished with Netherlandish furniture from the 17th century.
The King’s Chamber has a bay window, located right above the castle’s main portal, from which the king could keep an eye on guests arriving at the castle, whereas the Queen’s Chamber has access to a vaulted tower chamber overlooking the Flag Bastion.
The Great Ballroom
Measuring 62 x 12 metres, the Ballroom was the largest hall in Northern Europe when it was completed in 1582. The walls are hung with a series of large paintings which were originally made from 1618 to 1631 for the Great Hall of Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen. The paintings in the Ballroom include:
The present floor and the fireplaces are from the rebuilding in 1924-38.
The Little Hall with five of the seven tapestries
The walls of the Little Hall are furnished with seven tapestries originally from a series of forty tapestries portraying one hundred Danish kings. The masterpieces include Tapestry depicting Oluf (1376-1387) and Tapestry depicting Knud VI (1182-1202). The tapestries were commissioned by Frederick II around 1580. Seven more tapestries are at the National Museum of Denmark, while the rest have been lost.
The chapel is located in the ground floor of the south wing and was inaugurated in 1582. In 1785, as the castle was being fitted for use as army barracks, the chapel was fitted out as a gymnasium and fencing hall and the furniture stored away. The chapel was refurnished with the original furniture in 1838 and reinaugurated in 1843.
Kronborg is known to many as “Elsinore,” the setting of William Shakespeare‘s famous tragedy Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, though “Elsinore” is actually the anglicized name of the surrounding town of Helsingør. Hamlet was performed in the castle for the first time to mark the 200th anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare, with a cast consisting of soldiers from the castle garrison. The stage was in the telegraph tower in the southwest corner of the castle. The play has since been performed several times in the courtyard and at various locations on the fortifications. Later performers to play Hamlet at the castle included Laurence Olivier, John Gielgud, Christopher Plummer, Derek Jacobi, David Tennant, and in 2009 Jude Law.
Holger the Dane
Statue of Holger in Kronborg castle
According to a legend linked to Arthurian myth, a Danish king known as Holger the Dane, was taken to Avalon by Morgan le Fay. He returned to rescue France from danger, then traveled to Kronborg castle, where he sleeps until he is needed to save his homeland. His beard has grown to extend along the ground. A statue of the sleeping Holger has been placed in the castle.
In the Danish tongue he is called Holger Danske.
The cast setting of the televised holiday series Jul på Kronborg (English: Christmas at Kronborg), which featured both Hamlet and Holger the Dane.
There has been a significant number of shipyards in Copenhagen. The notes below are not an exhaustive list, but are collated according to the sources I have found for my ship database lists with connection to the Museum of Maritime collections.
The earliest shipbuilding in Copenhagen
The shipbuilding industry in the capital has been extensive, and this text can only give a very brief summary of the activities. The naval shipyard falls outside the scope of the text, as only a small number of vessels were built which from the outset was intended for commercial services. A few steel ships were built to the State administration, such as ferries. They can be found in the ship database when they have had civil roles (and otherwise meet the requirement of affiliation with the Museum archives.)
In addition, the names of a number of ship master builders are employed at Bremerholm, Nyholm and later Orlogsværftet (Naval Shipyard), as mentioned in the Shipbuilders ‘ list, as they often had tasks also in the field of the merchant ship’s construction.
The land used for shipbuilding in Copenhagen Harbour was mainly on the Christianshavns side. Andreas Bjørn was granted rights to an area which, however, was first to be filled, at the northern end of Christianshavn. It is the area between the North Trench and the South Wilder channel. Andreas Bjørn got it met and it sounded until 1748 named Andreas Bjørn’s place. On older maps from the 19th century you can see the area with three characteristic notches to the west to three basins.
In 1748, the area was divided so that the northern part with two of the pools were sold to the merchant company. When the company ceased in 1774 and the following years only settled the last business, the square was taken over by the state, ie. The king, and the construction of shipbuilding continued, By Icelandic, Finmarkske, Faroese and Greenlandic trading Company [IFFGHK] in the square.
The square was again divided in 1805, when the northernmost basin came to KGH [?], and the south was called Krøyers Plads (Krøyers Square).
The southernmost basin, which had not joined the merchant company in 1748, was then in 1762 sold to the broker Carl Wilders, and the square was named after the purchaser. Today, only the northernmost basin is left on the KGHs area; The two other basins are filled up to the unbroken line towards the harbour, and Strandgade, which before only went to the bridge over the Wilders Channel, has now been brought right up to the north of the island.
In the general Trading Company’s place, around 1760-1768 ship builder Niels Halkier worked.
In IFFGHKs Square after 1774 worked among others. Ship builder Erik Eskildsen *).
The company had most of its facilities in the southern part of Christianshavn, in the area now known as Christiansbro, but established a branch at Wilders Plads.
Shipbuilding on the toldbodgade side of the harbour
In royal Resolution of 1775-04-13, Icelandic, Finmarkske and Faroese trade were available over an area between Toldbodgade and the port south of Toldboden. It had to be matured before it could be used. The shipbuilding industry started here from 1776. The leading ship builder was Erik Eskildsen *, who in the following years and still in 1782 had stood for at least 42 ships ‘ drains from this place and Greenlandic trading place in Christianshavn, where he was also the chief shipbuilder.
*) Erik Eskildsen (* 1738, † 1793) often appears nicknamed Tønsberg. His family came from Tønsberg, where his grandfather, Bessesen, was reasonably born at the end of the 17th century. His son, Andre’s Eskildsen, was in the middle of the 18th century naval builder, constructor and chairman of the Model chamber on Holmen. Erik Eskildsen was in the flourishing trading period both master Builder and shipyard owner, and his son Erik Eskildsen Jun. (* 1776, † 1856) became a port captain in Copenhagen, but began his career at sea in the Asian Company’s ships, which he knew from his older Brother-in-law Peter Norden Avinash-a transition employed in the same company. [TfS 1965 April, page 151ff].
Duntzfelt owned from 1801 an area on the harbour south of the Blue warehouse and to what is now Admiral Hotel, there were bedding plants and bradbænk that the Baltic Guinea trading company had used until the company’s dissolution in 1788-1789. The nickname was often Østersøompagniets space, and after the company’s end called Duntzfelts yard.
From 1802 the area is referred to as Lars Larsen’s shipyard. Ship builder Lars Larsen had bought the area in 1802, he was a trained shipbuilder under Erik Eskildsen at the Guinea trading Company yard, and subsequently also became a ship builder at The Pingal Consortium.
Some shipbuilders are mentioned in (Klem-2) p. 42f.
When Lars Larsen died in 1844, the square was bought by Jacob Holm and later taken over by Copenhagen harbour along with land further north, where the old custom set was built in 1875. In 1877, Bradbænken [?] was removed from Larsen’s place, and by the end of the 19th century the whole area was quays.
Shipbuilding on Christianshavns side of the harbour
A timber framed work shop building dating from Andreas Bjørn’s dockyard at Wilders Plads in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Andreas Bjørn’s Shipyard
Andreas Bjørn, born 1703, in 1743, had bought land on Christianshavn south of the bridge to Copenhagen in connection with the West India-Guinea company Square and also called the Green Harbor very close to Christianskirkens Square today. It is undoubtedly there * * that David Balfour had already built ships for Christian IV in the first half of the 17th century, and in the 1670s, a yard was tried by Jonas Trel Lund but without success. Later the area surpassed Abraham Lehn, and Oluf Lange was the last owner, and from then, Andreas Bjørn acquired the area in 1743.
However, this space to the South was for lumber space and gave little room for shipbuilding, and Bjørn had long been planning for major shipyard activity, and his new yard was already founded in 1735 on land further north, which Bjørn had fulfilled as described above. The shipyard started at the beginning of the 1740s.
When Andreas Bjørn in 1735 got the privilege of the containment of the water area (now Wilders place), and with the help of General-Admiral-Lieutenant Greve Danneskjold-Samsøe, Bjørn was allowed to set up a dock in 1739, and some of the excavated land was used for Replenishment of his water areas. [Schovelin-1 p.187]
Bjørn died 1750. He had in various places built up to 50 merchant ships and to the Navy a single naval ship, KJØBENHAVNS SLOT, in 1741 (ID = 8724) and some small galioter to the fleet. It cannot be determined which ships were built on which place, but in (Klem-1) p. 102ff, 35 of his ships have been identified and there are four fortømringer [?].
Bjørn used various ship builders, some worked both in the Navy and privately. There are mentioned: Paul Brock 1742-1743, 1747, A. Eskildsen 1743, Jacob Rasmussen Lund 1744-1745, Andreas Thuresen 1746-47, Jens Sørensen 1747.
SOURCE A) p. 102-103.
* *) The fleet’s rent was from approx. 1428 in the Rævehalegattet behind Slotsholmen before moving over to Christianshavn’s site to Grønnegaards harbour. From about 1536, the Navy was moved onto the Copenhagen side again on the Krabbeløkken, where Bremer Holm was later built. Around 1604, New Castle port = The port between Tøjhuset and Provintgården was built and used until about 1680.
[TfS 1941 p. 602f]
Lars Wilders Shipbuilding
Lars Wilder’s father, Carl Wilder ca. 1698-1765, had in 1762 bought a part of Bjørn’s space and drive with hired help yard here, until his son Lars Wilder, 1738-1810, could take over the operation and get the yard in the process of prosperity. Lars Wilder drove the yard to 1803 and died seven years later without heirs and bequeathed his fortune to charity, especially to hospitals in Copenhagen.
Ryberg & Co.’s Shipbuilding
Was the early Icelandic company shipyard. It worked with ship builder Nicolay Olsen, as noted in (Klem-2) p. 15f in the years 1794 to about 1800.
Applebye, 1709 to 1774-08-13, was born in Gosport, England, and came to Denmark, where he appeared as a merchant and was granted privileges on rope making, which he fabricated on the ground along the Langebrogade, just inside the rampart, which he had left in 1745. The area stretched down to Jan van Oster’s Square, which was made up of the triangle between Langebrogade and Christianshavn Canal. The area just west of this was only a water site that Applebye had met, and it was later renamed the Engelskmandens Plads (English Man’s Square).
Further to the port towards the west, he got a second piece of water area. It was ready for use in 1763. It came to be called Applebyes Square and does it yet. The area of water, which existed between the two squares at the end of the 19th century, is now built on land.
Here Peter Applebye established the shipyard. The privilege was renewed in 1769 for Peter Applebye & Son’s shipbuilding, with his son John Applebye and son-in-law John Brown at the death of his father in 1774 taking the company to Peter Applebye Junior, * 1740, the brother of John Applebye. The Ship builder and Rebslager Peter Applebye and the shipyard continue to drive and died in 1807. According. Biographical Lexicon wasted Peter Junior together with John Brown the fortune away.
[National Economic Journal, note 21 by the article Danmarks Kridtpibe manufactured by C. Nyrop. 1881 p. 158]
There were several ship builders attached to the Applebyes shipyard. In the early 1760s Hans Mathiasen was Wending several ships, and in the period thereafter the Royal District Quartermaster Erick Eskildsen Tønsberg was authorised to operate private shipbuilding at Applebye with another looser attached Ship builder Peter Halkier. The sequel to Wending was Jørgen Hansen Koch, who worked for many years from about 1776 to 1782, perhaps later. Koch’s son was court master builder of the same name, and his father was Applebyes master Svend Hans Christian Koch, * 1710, † 1779.
Jan van Osten
As mentioned during the Applebye, his reason stretched out to the ground of Jan van Oster. Jan van Osten had also set up a yard in the 18th century. After he ceased, the square was called Tyske Plads (German Square), but on the map of 1870, the Land of Van Oster was built, and to the west it is named Engelskmandens Plads (English man’s Square), while the area along the waterfront is named Applebyes Plads (Applebyes Square).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the yard was driven by L.N. Hvidt, which sold to Jacob Holm in 1822.
Konferensråd Fabritius Tengnagel
Herr Fabritius was ennobled Tegnagel. He was Director of the Asian company.
Andreas Hansen Bodenhoff, 1723-1794, had a trade letter as master, became an owner and lumber trader, and received 1766 from the king, leaving an unfulfilled area east of Christianshavn’s canal and south of Trangraven. This area had to be met before the shipyard could be established and it was therefore only in 1771 that the first ship was launched from the yard (MARGARETHA MARIA at 120 kls.). Throughout the 1780s, a large number of vessels were built for both the Koffardien and the Navy. The first vessel for the Navy was the frigate STOREBELT in 1782. Bodenhoff was himself in 1780 nests for 28 ships.
Andreas bodenhoffs son of the same name died 1796, and his widow Giertrud Birgitte Rosted (†1798) sold 1797 nine ships to KGH.
Both for the ships from Bodenhoffs Plads Shipyard and from the Asiatic Company, the cartoons often came from Fabrikmester Henrik gladly.
Asian company realized quite quickly that if you could keep up with the construction and maintenance of a sizeable fleet, you would have to yourself have shipbuilding and timber space. The company therefore established the yard on its own land, which retained the name Asiatisk Plads (Asian Square).
Copenhagen, Wilders Plads (Wilders Square), Christianshavn
Shipbuilding in the 19th century
Jacob Holms Activities
Jacob Holm, 1770-1845, had diligently as a merchant created capital to be able to operate his own ships. His nesting career began in 1798 and came after the Englandskrigene (((Wars of England))), and to his death, over 100 ships was built. He created the shipyard in 1814 by initially renting Wilders Plads (Wilders Square). Since then he bought several small yards, including In 1822, L.N. Hvidt’s shipyard was located at the place of the former Jan van Oster.
In 1824 he took over Fabritius ‘ yard in Strandgade just below the Christian’s Church (Danish: Christians Kirke), and on the map from 1870 the square is also called Holms Plads. From 1829 he rented of the Admiralitetskollegiet Bodenhoffs Plads in the north of Christianshavn, and in 1833 he bought the Engelskmandens Plads (English man’s Square), neighbor to the square he bought from L.N. Hvidt. For L.N. Hvidt’s account, he built the 1829 ship S/S FREDERIK VI (ID 3082) (Biog. Lex.). This replaced the CALEDONIA on the Kiel route.
Jacob Holm let Applebys rope factory transform into worker dwellings and built a modern rope factory where Amager Centret is today. Holm bought in 1840 Asian Kompagni Plads (Square). In this way Jacob Holm had set himself on a very significant part of the Copenhagen Shipbuilding. At Jacob Holms Strandgade Shipyard, Denmark’s first lightship was built in 1829 (ID 8256) for the stage part.
Jacob Holm’s shipyards employed many ship builders: Repholtz, P. Jørgensen, H.P. Brandt and Ertmann Peter Bonneen, 1809-1877. The latter wrote autobiography [Copy SR-1949-2262] and received his son Andreas Bonneen, who became commander and ship Builder [Source: Illumination at the back of painting H&S 1975:0113].
Ship builder Lambert Bonneen worked-1817-1818-at Jacob Holms Shipyard acc. with [ELI].
Also another ship builder of Bonneen worked in Copenhagen. Ship builder C.P. Bonneen is mentioned in certificate from Copenhagen 1848-05-12 and built MARIE of Copenhagen at 2.75 KLS. To the Ministry of Interior.
[ELI, RA. Customs. Skibsmaalings-and-Reg cases B1d4f-g]
A fishing boat (ID = 3268) was built in 1868 with Popp & Michelsen in Copenhagen. Michelsen died 1887-08-09, and acc. with the The company was around 1860-1895.
Also (id = 3439) I.F. Erichsen, a schooner brigade was built there 1868, and the same year built a schooner (ID = 3413) HARRIET.
Ship builder O.F. Larsen rebuilt 1868 in Copenhagen the boat ÆGIR, HBPJ/NHRQ, (ID = 3597).
Inderslevs Shipyard at Langebro was mentioned in 1824, where the ship ALEXANDRINE (ID = 12249) was scrapped there. [Dragoer p. 95]
Steel Shipbuilding in Copenhagen
Hellerup Shipyard & Maskinbyggeri
Founded by shipowner Alfred Christensen in 1898 (StD-3 p. 235: Founded 1900) on land with harbour access at Gammel Vartov in Hellerup. The shipyard built five steamboats, but did not build or install machines that were installed elsewhere. The first ship was given a machine in England, subsequently receiving machines from Dansk Maskinfabrik, Kedelsmedie, Støberi og Skibsbyggeri (Danish machines, foundry and shipbuilding) (see below). Already in 1901, Urania D/s A/s took over the assets of the shipyard. The yard was sold in 1905.
In two of the ships, Alfred Christensen, himself, was the company Urania; They were on respectively. 2700 and 2500 DWt, Crown prince FREDERIK (id = 7224) and Crown Princess LOUISE (id = 9559), Newbuildings No. 1. 2 and 3. The first ship got JL, S/s NEXOS (id = 9558), and the last, S/s Amba (id = 9557), 2,500 GRT, went to EAC in 1902-05-00. The fifth ship was taken by Alfred Christensen himself to the North Sea D/s A/S.
Dansk Maskinfabrik, Kedelsmedie, Støberi og Skibsbyggeri (Danish machines, foundry and shipbuilding)
A company founded 1899 and whose leadership was made in the company Alfred Christensen, Amalie Gade. The group included the Nordsøen D/S, Urania D/S, Internationalt Dampskibs- & Bjergnings Compagni (North Sea D/s, Urania D/S, International Steamship-& Salvage Compagni) and the Det Danske Damper & Lægter Kompagni (Danish Steamer & Battens Company). In the years 1908-1909, two steamers were built. 71 and 96 GRT, namely salvage II and salvage III in a shipyard space at the beach Mill. Additional business is not known.
[Danish Steel shipyards p. 93, in the following 1911, A) vol. 3, p. 235]
Arentz & Rosenfeldt
Hjalmar Arentz, who was trained at B&W, established wooden shipbuilding shipyard as a self-employed company in the Kalkbrænderihavnen Harbour in 1894, and in 1895 became a partner of the the area in which it began production. Their first place was a rented shed at the company Frimodt & Petersen, Ny Kalkbrænderihavnen. And their first ships were wooden ships, but from number five steel ships was produced.
No. 1 was a sailing boat tumbler for Prince Valdemar and Princess Marie (the successor of a former with the same name, NGRH. Newbuilding No. 1 5 was the ferry NORDBY to Esbjerg crossing, it was delivered in 1897.
Already 1897, the shipyard was transformed into KJØBENHAVNS floating Dock & shipyard-see below.
Orlogsværftet Naval Shipyard (Holmen)
The special shipyard for warships on land within the naval area built from ca. 1690 as the main supplier of woden naval vessels to Denmark. The first shipyard leader, Claus Judichær, was hired 1692-12-10. During the shipyard leader Otto Frederik Suenson, a gradual approach was taken to the Iron shipbuilding fleet, which first armoured wooden boats and then building real iron ships. The first was the LINDORMEN in 1868, but then B&W had supplied iron ships to the fleet.
The Naval Shipyard built individual ships to other State institutions: Ferries to DSB and post-steamers for the Post- & Telegrafvæsenet (Post-& Telegraph System). A single ship to the Store Nordiske Telegraf-Selskab (Large Nordic Telegraph Company) was delivered in 1922. It was the cable steamship EDOUARD SUENSON. New construction ended in the 1970s with a series of submarines. In 1990, all activities were set.
In October 1917, the founding General Assembly 1917-10-03, in the Sydhavn (South Harbour) in the harbour area of Frederiksholm and neighbour of Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværfts Søndre Afdeling (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard), a steel shipyard was brought to be named Baltica Shipyard. Management hired by the municipality 23,000 square meters with 300 meters berth at Frederiksholm Brickworks. The yard had three building beddings projected and bought a floating dock for repairs.
Due to the material situation in connection with the WW1, the building drew out, but in July 1919 the first ship was laid. It was DANEMARK for Dana D/s A/S, Copenhagen (ID = 9347). Byggenr. 2 was FREDENSBRO to the Copenhagen D/s A/s (ID = 9988).
The shipyard built two ships of 3000 and 4000 GRT in 1920 and 1921. The third ship, S/S SPICA to Norwegian shipping company, had to be completed at Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværfts Søndre Afdeling (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard). Baltica Yard stopped the activities in 1921, but continued during the liquidation to build until 1921 when the build number two was handed over. The liquidation was not completed until 1925.
The shipyard was established in July 1918 as a repair yard. The founders were Nielsen & Petersen the proprietors of an equivalent motor repair company, and the Nordhavn Shipyard took over the parent company’s rental contract on the land in Kalkbrænderihavnen port where Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværfts Søndre Afdeling (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard) had been held. The shipyard built in the 1920s only barges.
The Nordhavn shipyard took over in 1949 Svanemølleværftets (Swan Mill Yard) land and called it later for its Østre Anlæg. Here there were slipway for repairs, so the yard had about 1950 over 6 slipways, the largest of which could take ships at 1500 DWt.
No newbuildings from the Nordhavn shipyard are known, but the equipment of smaller vessels, fishing vessels were made during the 1960s to the closed mid-1970s.
Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværft (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard)
The founder of the shipyard was engineer Hjalmar Arentz, who from 1895 drove a small yard in the Kalkbrænderihavnen port, and later with partner, Rosenfeldt. The yard was located in Kalkbrænderihavnen Harbour, and their first steel ship, Byggenr. 5, was the ferry NORDBY to Esbjerg crossing, it was delivered in 1897. On the beginning see above under Arentz & Rosenfeldt.
Engineer Arentz got the Landmandsbanken (Farmer’s Bank) and a few shipowners, Adolph Carl and Captain Torm, interested, and the partnership was transformed in 1897 into Kjøbenhavns Floating Dock & Shipyard A/S at Krøyers Plads in Christianshavn, while the former Areas in new Kalkbrænderihavnen port were held as a branch. From the place of Krøyer, the yard spread to the majority of Wilders Plads, a historically significant place, as it was actually on the same reason Andreas Bjørn’s yard from the 18th century had been lying. Kalkbrænderihavnen was taken over by the Nordhavn shipyard in 1917.
In 1898, the shipyard was delivered with a floating dock ordered in Flensburg, and later two float docks were in addition to the two building slipways that turned to the harbour. The shipyard followed the development, and for example the first pneumatic tool in Scandinavia was delivered from the United States. The areas in Christianshavn were expanded with Wilders Plads (Wilders Square), so in 1916 more than 42,000 square metres increased in 1917 with 24,000 square meters from the brickworks in Sydhavnen (Møller, 1984 p. 88 says 70,000 sqm., later expanded to 90,000 sq. m.), where four dry docks were built, two for newbuildings and two for repairs. It was instead of slipways.
This department was named Søndre Værft (Southern Shipyard), and the shipyard’s first own production was laid 1919. It was number 145, S/s PACIFIC, built for Det Oversøiske Compagnie A/S (Overseas Compagnie A/S), Copenhagen. The design studio had moved to Søndre Shipyard already in May of that year. The first ship completed at the yard was also an iron-concrete ship, BARTELS, delivered to Patria D/s A/s.
KJØBENHAVNS Floating Dock bought the 1923 remnants of Køge Shipyard from JL, who had lost large sums at the yard, and as part of the trade became JL shareholder at the floating dock. The floating dock managed to build or equip 194 ships before it had to allow all assets in 1927 to take over by B&W, who immediately stopped the building at Søndre Shipyard, but continued on the Strandgade department with the last ship launched in 1933.
The name Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværft (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard) was preserved in a new company founded 1928, but it never got anything produced and disappeared shortly after 1934.
[I] Floating dock] + [Danish shipbuilding, Årg. 1 No. 1, 1920-11-01]
Burmeister & Wain Shipyard B&W
Founded 1843 by Hans Heinrich Baumgarten and from 1846 in partnership with Carl Christian Burmeister. The yard was created on land in Christianshavn, the so-called Engelskmandens Plads (English man’s Square), hired by the company Jacob Holm & Sons. The shipyard was established in the Engelskmandens Plads (English man’s Square) in 1851 and the first iron ship was delivered in 1855. It was small transport boats, while the first iron vessel, wheeled steamboat NIORD or NJORD, was contracted by the Postvæsenet (Post) and handed in 1857.
In 1861, Baumgarten withdrew and, from 1865, became a partner of William Wain. From 1872, the shipyard was a limited company with the name Burmeister & Wain = B&W-the name and at the same time moved the yard to the area at Refshaleøen.
On the new land, 4 building slipways and 2 repair slipways were built. Later a dry dock came in and the original building slipways were rebuilt to take larger ships.
The first ships delivered from the refs Refshaleøen were number 83 and 84, respectively. CHRISTIANIA (id = 9555) and CHRISTIAN DEN IX (id = 6386), both of which were launched in 1874. The first steel ship was delivered 1885. It was M.G. MELCHIOR. The land in Strandgade was retained, however, and the last ship from the department was delivered 1933.
Contract with Rudolf Diesel in Germany was achieved in 1898, and the first motor ship was delivered in 1912. B&W could not under WW1 deliver engines to other shipyards that created their own engine factory named Dansk Diesel Motor Company, which B&W soon after took over when they could again supply engines. The company acquired was renamed to Holeby Diesel engine factory. B&W took over also in 1938 Frederikshavn Iron Foundry and machine factory producing Alpha diesel engines.
In 1927, B&W took over Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværft (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard), now called Søndre Shipyard. It finally closed in 1928.
In the same year, Holeby was purchased Diesel and the Guldborg Iron Foundry.
1938 was purchased Frederikshavn’s Iron Foundry & Maskinfabrik, Nordisk Diesel A/S and Alpha Gas I/S (autogas).
In 1971 B&W was divided into the motor factory, Burmeister & Wains motor and Maskinfabrik A/s, and in the shipyard, Burmeister & Wains Shipbuilding A/s, but when the Bonde Nielsen received sufficient share capital in 1974, the two companies were merged again in 1977. The repair department was closed and so was Teglholmen in 1975.
The B&W group established in 1976 Hamlet Rederi A/s, Bonde Nielsen company Egtofte took over B&W and shipyard and machine factory gathered in Burmeister & Wain A/s with its subsidiaries B&W Industri A/s and B&W Motor A/s.
In 1978 it merged (again) B&W Motor and B&W Industri, and the group took over Dannebrog Elektronik and Glud & Marstrand’s factories. And the following year, 1979, B&W merged with Glud & Marstrand, and the engine factory was sold to MAN Group in Germany. In the same year W.A. Souter, Botved boats and several foreign companies were bought.
In 1980, B&W Shipyard and the rest of B&W went into receivership. B&W Shipyard A/s was then owned by B&W A/s in bankruptcy.
On the remnants, a new company was established with the name Burmeister & Wain Shipyard A/S.
In 1989 the group is B&W holding A/s with the subsidiaries B&W shipyard, B&W Shipdesign A/s, Atlantic Holding A/s (which has 14 subsidiary companies) and B&W Industri A/S of 1988 (1990).
In 1990, the shipping company Burwain Tankers and in June came B&W back to listing on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (Børsen), and the Refshaleøens Island property company was purchased and payed with B shares in B&W Holding A/s, and Øens Investeringsselskab A/S (Island Investment Company, A/s), was established, in which employees can buy stocks. In 1991, Burwain Saudie was founded to provide cargo to the built tankers owned by the group.
After countless antics, the shipyard finally closed in 1994. When the yard had delivered about 950 ships and from Kjøbenhavns Flydedok og Skibsværft (Copenhagen Floating Dock and Shipyard) was delivered around 195 ships.