Proto-Germanic language

“The Proto-Germanic language developed in southern Scandinavia (Denmark, south Sweden and southern Norway), the Urheimat (original home) of the Germanic tribes.”  [in other words, Denmark]

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common EraWest GermanicEast Germanic and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic.

A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of the process described by Grimm’s law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European and its gradual divergence into a separate language. As it is probable that the development of this sound shift spanned a considerable time (several centuries), Proto-Germanic cannot adequately be reconstructed as a simple node in a tree model but rather represents a phase of development that may span close to a thousand years. The end of the Common Germanic period is reached with the beginning of the Migration Period in the fourth century.

The alternative term “Germanic parent language” may be used to include a larger scope of linguistic developments, spanning the Nordic Bronze Age and Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe (second to first millennia BC) to include “Pre-Germanic” (PreGmc), “Early Proto Germanic” (EPGmc) and “Late Proto-Germanic” (LPGmc). While Proto-Germanic refers only to the reconstruction of the most recent common ancestor of Germanic languages, the Germanic parent language refers to the entire journey that the dialect of Proto-Indo-European that would become Proto-Germanic underwent through the millennia.

The Proto-Germanic language is not directly attested by any coherent surviving texts; it has been reconstructed using the comparative method. Fragmentary direct attestation exists of (late) Common Germanic in early runic inscriptions (specifically the second-century AD Vimose inscriptions and the second-century BC Negau helmet inscription), and in Roman Empire era transcriptions of individual words (notably in Tacitus‘ Germaniac. 90 CE).

Map of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe showing cultures associated with Proto-Germanic, c. 500 BC. The red shows the area of the preceding Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia; the magenta-colored area towards the south represents the Jastorf culture of the North German Plain.

Wikipedia

Red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side

Germanic People

Danes

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Why does Old English sound like Danish?

English Words with Old Norse Origins

The North Germanic Languages of the Nordic Nations

Nynorsk and Bokmål: Why are there two ways to write Norwegian?

Bornholmsk Dialect

Scanian Dialect

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Why Danish sounds funny to Scandinavians

Isolated People in Sweden Used Runes Up Until The 20th Century

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The German Language

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How to tell apart Dutch, Afrikaans and Frisian

 

 

Voting in the Council of the European Union – Germanic vs Non-Germanic

Countries like Spain, Poland and  Romania has more votes than Netherlands.

Greece, Portugal, Czech Rep. and Hungary has more votes than Sweden and Austria.

Bulgaria has more votes than Denmark.

Why do these freeloaders have more influence than those who contribute the most?

Net contributors to the EU budget

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Image result for VikingLifeBlog

The voting system of the Council as defined in the Treaty of Nice entered into force on 1 February 2003. The voting weights of the member states according to this treaty are shown in the table on the right. The voting system was replaced by the Treaty of Lisbon, effective 1 November 2014.

After the accession of Croatia, on 1 July 2013, at least 260 votes out of a total of 352 by at least 15 member states were required for legislation to be adopted by qualified majority. Croatia had 7 votes (the same as Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland).[24]

From 1 July 2013, the pass condition translated into:

  1. At least 15 (or 18, if proposal was not made by the Commission) countries,
  2. At least 260 of the total 352 voting weights,
  3. At least 313.6 million people represented by the states that vote in favour.
Population in millions as of 1 January 2003 (Treaty of Nice)
Member state Population Weights Penrose
 Germany 82.54m 16.5% 29 8.4% 9.55%
 France 59.64m 12.9% 29 8.4% 8.11%
 UK 59.33m 12.4% 29 8.4% 8.09%
 Italy 57.32m 12.0% 29 8.4% 7.95%
 Spain 41.55m 9.0% 27 7.8% 6.78%
 Poland 38.22m 7.6% 27 7.8% 6.49%
 Romania 21.77m 4.3% 14 4.1% 4.91%
 Netherlands 17,02m 3.3% 13 3.8% 4.22%
 Greece 11.01m 2.2% 12 3.5% 3.49%
 Portugal 10.41m 2.1% 12 3.5% 3.39%
 Belgium 10.36m 2.1% 12 3.5% 3.38%
 Czech Rep. 10.20m 2.1% 12 3.5% 3.35%
 Hungary 10.14m 2.0% 12 3.5% 3.34%
 Sweden 8.94m 1.9% 10 2.9% 3.14%
 Austria 8.08m 1.7% 10 2.9% 2.98%
 Bulgaria 7.85m 1.5% 10 2.9% 2.94%
 Denmark 5.38m 1.1% 7 2.0% 2.44%
 Slovakia 5.38m 1.1% 7 2.0% 2.44%
 Finland 5.21m 1.1% 7 2.0% 2.39%
 Ireland 3.96m 0.9% 7 2.0% 2.09%
 Lithuania 3.46m 0.7% 7 2.0% 1.95%
 Latvia 2.33m 0.5% 4 1.2% 1.61%
 Slovenia 2.00m 0.4% 4 1.2% 1.48%
 Estonia 1.36m 0.3% 4 1.2% 1.23%
 Cyprus 0.72m 0.2% 4 1.2% 0.89%
 Luxembourg 0.45m 0.1% 4 1.2% 0.70%
 Malta 0.40m 0.1% 3 0.9% 0.66%
 EU 484.20m 100% 345 100% 100%

Read more here at Wikipedia

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Copenhagen: The Capital of All Nordic Countries and the Spiritual Capital for All Germanic People

Originally a Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century, it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces. During the renaissance the city served as the de facto capital being the seat of government of the Kalmar Union, governing the entire present day Nordic region in a personal union with Sweden and Norway ruled by the Danish monarch serving as the head of state. The city flourished as the cultural and economic center of Scandinavia under the union for well over 120 years, starting in the 15th century up until the beginning of the 16th century when the union was dissolved with Sweden leaving the union through a rebellion.

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Hans Ø the most western part of Denmark

Denmark

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Holmen

Retired crane becomes luxury-retreat

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Copenhagen Wikipedia

List of streets in Copenhagen Wikipedia

German National Socialists Trained at Russian Camps

I imagine it’s difficult to find a place to get “combat training” for North and West European nationalists, but I still find their flirt with the Judeo-Slavic people troublesome.

Members of the youth wing of Germany’s patriotic National Democratic Party (NPD) and the right-wing party The Third Way have completed the training, the report said, citing German intelligence sources.

Swedish and Finnish nationals are also among the trainees. Participants go on to join Russian militias active in eastern Ukraine.

Read more here at Daily Archives

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Russia tries to intimidate Denmark with new warship

US re-establishes naval fleet in Atlantic amid increased Russia threat

U.S. Navy releases video of Russian Ship, accuses ship of aggressive moves

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Russia’s New Maritime Doctrine And Issues With The Surface Fleet

Russia’s Sole Aircraft Carrier Catches Fire in Northern Port

About Slavic Rape Culture

Russia & Nigeria

For decades, Russia’s oil giants have been polluting parts of the country’s once thriving landscape, often in secret, spilling oil onto the land and into the Arctic Ocean, poisoning the water and destroying the livelihood of local communities and Indigenous Peoples.

Eastern Europe is our Mexico!

Truth Fears No Investigation

The Russian (((Bolshevik Revolution)))

An Invasive Duo

Judeo-Slavic

THE MYTH OF SOVIET INNOVATION

Viking Vessels

The Hedeby 1 and Hedeby 3 Viking ships. DRAWN BY SUNE VILLUM-NIELSEN. THE VIKING SHIP MUSEUM, DENMARK

The Viking ship was perfectly adapted to the needs of these hardy adventurers. Swift, with a draught shallow enough to enter rivers and creeks, it gave the Vikings the same advantage of mobility over their opponents and victims as the camels of the Bedouin and the ponies of the Turks did over theirs.

The name Vikings has an immediate resonance for most people in the English-speaking world. Whereas the Huns, Arabs and Mongols seem to belong to the ‘other’, remote and inaccessible in both their culture and geographical location, the image of the Vikings is clear enough. They are part of the folk memory of western culture that has been handed down from generation to generation.

Read more here via

SAAB-Kockums: Inside our leading naval factory

Dedication and skill, testing, infrastructure and automatization plus modular and evolutionary design. Some of the components that make our submarine program the world’s most modern. We turned it all into a mini documentary for you.

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